How to Best Use References in a Dissertation
Published byat August 12th, 2021 , Revised On May 8, 2023
“In a dissertation, references refer to the sources and citations used to support and validate the research.”
They provide evidence, scholarly context, and acknowledgment of the works consulted during the study. References typically include books, journal articles, websites, and other relevant publications cited in the dissertation.
Writing a dissertation can be challenging especially if you haven’t had the chance to write a dissertation before. You need to look into relevant literature, analyze past researches, conduct surveys, interviews, etc. and also reference and cite information that you’ve gathered from different sources.
Many students are usually confused regarding which sources should be mentioned and which be omitted. This confusion arises because they are unaware of the fact as to which sources are credible, reliable, and authentic and which are not.
Thus, the question always remains ‘How to Best Use References in a Dissertation’?
While there is no single way to best use references in a dissertation, students should have a clear understanding of the concept of the use of credible and reliable sources in their dissertation paper.
In today’s world where changes take place frequently, some newspaper articles published online are also categorized as authentic and credible sources.
Information and/or data can be extracted from these articles and included in dissertations with proper use of a citation.
To make sure that references are used appropriately in dissertations, here are a few ways that you can follow:
Research Relevant Studies
Depending on the topic of your dissertation, make sure to research and look into similar researches that have been conducted in the past. In addition to this, you could also read, analyze and review researches that have utilized the same model or talk about the same theory as you are applying in your dissertation.
Doing so will add a lot of value to your dissertation and you will be able to include models and theories with correct references and citations.
Include Recent Researches
As important as relevant studies are for your dissertation, including recent studies only is equally important. Using reference in a dissertation that belong to the past five to ten years are acceptable; however, using references of the 1980s or 1990s is not recommended.
The main reason being changes in time, settings, environment, participants, etc. All these factors contribute a lot towards accurate conclusions, thus they are regarded as essential when using a study for reference purposes.
Also, writing a dissertation in the current setting, considering the current environment, only recent researches must be included in the dissertation. This gives readers the idea that the research that has been conducted is recent.
Also Read: How to avoid plagiarism in an academic paper
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Cite/Reference while Writing
Many of us are guilty of extracting information from various sources when writing without noting down the reference. As a result, we lose track of that particular reference and end up spending hours looking for that specific article or research.
Thus, you should always note down the reference as soon as you refer to it in your dissertation or when you include data or information. In this manner, you will have a complete list of references that you’ve used when you’ve finished writing your dissertation.
Also, doing so will save you a lot of your time, and you will be able to finish your dissertation without any delays.
Know When and Where to Cite
Remember the hours you spent looking for the statistics or the specific piece of information that you mentioned in your dissertation, but forgot to cite? This usually happens when the deadline is nearing, and we’re in a hurry to complete our dissertation.
However, you should always keep in mind that when you rush things, you tend to spend a lot more time than needed. Thus, whenever you’re mentioning a fact, statistics, or a particular piece of information that is exact and accurate, always cite it.
Not doing so will keep your readers in doubt whether the statistic or number mentioned is accurate or not. On the other hand, if you cite those exact numbers, readers will have the impression that you have done your research, and they can even crosscheck it by referring to your citation.
Choose the Correct Referencing Style
There are various referencing styles. Depending on your university and other requirements, the right referencing style is chosen and conveyed to you.
What you should make sure of is understanding the required referencing style, so you can cite accurately. A Harvard style referencing style example includes a reference list with the name of authors, the journal or book name, the publisher’s name, and the date and the page number.
When citing the exact words of an author or when defining a theory or model, make sure that you include the page number as they are required for direct quotations.
If, in case you do not understand any of the referencing styles, you should either follow the guidelines provided by your tutor or you can also search the internet for your required referencing style.
With time, new editions of referencing styles have been introduced to make sure that all thesis and dissertations follow the same pattern. Thus, make it a practice to crosscheck your referencing style from the internet to make sure that you’re following the latest format and edition.
Proofread your Reference List
This is one of the most important, but often most ignored aspects when looking at how to use references correctly. Your reference list should be sorted as soon as you finish writing your dissertation.
For instance, it should be alphabetically arranged, the number of references should be appropriate for the dissertation, and should be free from all types of errors such as formatting, grammatical and style.
The correct style should be followed, the reference list should be properly formatted and proofread to eliminate all errors. An ideal list of reference examples includes correct mention of the author name, year of publication, and name of the book.
The publisher’s name should be italicized and the page number should also be mentioned. For academic journals, mentioning volume and issue number is mandatory. All these aspects should be considered to make sure that an accurate reference list is prepared for your dissertation.
Crosscheck your Citations
When citing your dissertation, you need to make sure that your text corresponds with the in-text citation that you’re including. Not doing so will make your research unreliable and unauthentic.
Readers will get an impression that the in-text citations have been included just for the sake of it, instead of being related to the text and information that is being mentioned.
Thus, the best in-text citation example includes the name of the author along with the year of publication. If there is a direct quote or a definition included in the exact words of the author, then the page number must be also indicated while citing.
Make sure that all your in-text citations are in line with the information that has been presented and discussed in the paper.
Number of References to be Used
‘How many references should I use for my dissertation? This is a question that most students face. They usually get confused when it comes to the number of references that should be used in a dissertation. There’s no right number of references that should be used in a dissertation.
It depends on the topic, the academic level of the dissertation, and the literature review that is being presented.
Also, the models and theories used in the paper contribute to the total number of references. Ideally, it is recommended that every paragraph of 100 words or more should have a reference; however, this is not required and mandatory in all cases.
The literature review is usually the chapter that uses the most references. This helps in formulating a dissertation that is not only informative but is backed by credible resources as well.
Referencing a dissertation is an easy task if done in the right manner. To answer the question, ‘how to best use references in a dissertation, you need to make sure that you’ve collected the right sources and are referring to credible and reliable information only.
Once you’ve sorted your references, you’re on your way to right an authentic dissertation. The literature review is an important aspect of every dissertation for mentioning relevant theories, models, and information. Thus, this section is critical when it comes to referencing. You should make sure that the models and theories are referenced appropriately, and all references are recent.
If you’re still unsure of whether you’re using references in the right manner or not, or you’re seeking help with referencing your dissertation, get in touch with our professional dissertation writing services.
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FAQs About References in a Dissertation
Old papers are usually outdated in terms of significance and impact. Therefore, you must look for recent papers to cite in your dissertation.
Without citation, it looks like you are presenting someone else’s words as your views idea, which will eventually count as plagiarism.
Moreover, the citations increase the credibility and accuracy of the information presented in the paper.
There are many referencing styles available to pick from, such as MLA, APA, Harvard referencing style, etc. You must check with your university preferences to choose one. However, most UK universities prefer Harvard referencing style.