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How to Cite Electronic Sources in Harvard Referencing Style?

Published by at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On February 19, 2024


Reference Websites
Format  Author’s name, initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Example  National Library of Medicine, (2015). Pub-chem’s Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.pubchem/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2019]

Note: If there is no author listed you can use the website name instead of the author’s surname and the remaining format will be the same (Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].)

If you are using any electronic sources such as images, audio, online videos, webpages, etc., you need to acknowledge the sources to avoid plagiarism.

Although there is no specific format of the Harvard Referencing style and different instates follow different guidelines, in this article, we tried to explain the in-text citation and referencing style of electronic sources through random examples.

Pdf Documents

A pdf document can be in any form, such as an e-book, article, report, guide, research paper, etc. You can mention its mode in the bracket given in the format below

Reference Pdf Documents
Format  Author’s surname, Initials (Year of Publication). Title of the Article/Column/book, [Mode], Place of Publisher, Publisher Name, Web address, [Accessed Date]
Example  Gomez, J. (2020) Corporate Structure: Economic Downfall [pdf] Right Publication, Available at http:// economictrasnformation.com/ [ 20th December, 2019]



Reference Blogs
Format  Author’s surname, First initial. (Year published). Post title. (Blog)Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Example  Urooj, A. (2020). What is self-plagiarism?. (Blog) ResearchProspect. Available at: https://www.researchprospect.com/what-is-self-plagiarism/[ Accessed 20 May 2020]


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Social Media Posts

Reference Social Media Posts
Format  Author’s surname, Initials., Year. Title of page. [Social media type] Day/month post written. Available at: [ Accessed date]
Example  Agarwal, S., 2017. Digital Marketing. [Facebook/Twitter] 2 August 2017. Available at: https: www.digitalmarketing.com [Accessed 20 May 2020]


Music Audios

Reference Music Audios
Format  Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label
Example  Kumar, K. (1980). Sargam. [CD] Bollywood: T-series


DVD, Videos or Movies

Reference DVD, Videos or Movies
Format  Film title. (Year published). Director/Filmmaker. [Format] Place of origin: Film studio
Example  Macbeth, (1948). [film]. Directed by Orson Welles
USA: Republic Picture



Reference Podcasts
Format  Broadcaster/Author’s surname, initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Example  Dan, J. Jenny. L. (2016) How to maintain a healthy diet. [podcast] Healthy talks. Available at: https:www.healthytalks.com [Accessed 6 May 2020]


Images, Pictures, and Photographs

Reference Images, Pictures, and Photographs
Format  Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Example  Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear.
Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015]


YouTube Videos

A youtube video doesn’t contain the author’s name you can use its title and other details such as:

  • Video’s title
  • Date of uploading
  • Uploader or Channel’s name
  • URL of the Video
  • Accessed date

Youtube videos harvard referencing

YouTube Videos

Reference YouTube Videos
Format  Title of Video (date uploaded) YouTube video, added by Username of uploader/channel name Online]. Available at URL [Accessed date]
Example  Dr. Bruce Lipton Explains How to Reprogram Your Subconscious Mind (10 July 2019) YouTube video, Fearless Soul[online] Available at https://youtu.be/OqLT_CNTNYA [Accessed 20 April 2020]


Frequently Asked Questions

In Harvard citation format, cite electronic sources by including:

  • Author’s last name, first initial.
  • Year of publication.
  • Title of the webpage/document.
  • Name of the website.
  • Date accessed.
  • URL. For example: Smith, J. (2023). “E-Commerce Trends.” Business Insights. Accessed July 15, 2023. https://www.example.com/e-commerce-trends.

About Alaxendra Bets

Avatar for Alaxendra BetsBets earned her degree in English Literature in 2014. Since then, she's been a dedicated editor and writer at ResearchProspect, passionate about assisting students in their learning journey.