How to Cite Electronic Sources in Harvard Referencing Style?
Published byat August 14th, 2021 , Revised On August 23, 2023
|Format||Author’s name, initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]|
|Example||National Library of Medicine, (2015). Pub-chem’s Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.pubchem/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2019]|
Note: If there is no author listed you can use the website name instead of the author’s surname and the remaining format will be the same (Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].)
If you are using any electronic sources such as images, audio, videos, webpages, etc., you need to acknowledge the sources to avoid plagiarism.
Although there is no specific format of the Harvard Referencing style and different instates follow different guidelines, in this article, we tried to explain the in-text citation and referencing style of electronic sources through random examples.
A pdf document can be in any form, such as an e-book, article, report, guide, research paper, etc. You can mention its mode in the bracket given in the format below
|Format||Author’s surname, Initials (Year of Publication). Title of the Article/Column/book, [Mode], Place of Publisher, Publisher Name, Web address, [Accessed Date]|
|Example||Gomez, J. (2020) Corporate Structure: Economic Downfall [pdf] Right Publication, Available at http:// economictrasnformation.com/ [ 20th December, 2019]|
|Format||Author’s surname, First initial. (Year published). Post title. (Blog)Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]|
|Example||Urooj, A. (2020). What is self-plagiarism?. (Blog) Research Prospect. Available at: https://www.researchprospect.com/what-is-self-plagiarism/[ Accessed 20 May 2020]|
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Social Media Posts
|Reference||Social Media Posts|
|Format||Author’s surname, Initials., Year. Title of page. [Social media type] Day/month post written. Available at: [ Accessed date]|
|Example||Agarwal, S., 2017. Digital Marketing. [Facebook/Twitter] 2 August 2017. Available at: https: www.digitalmarketing.com [Accessed 20 May 2020]|
|Format||Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label|
|Example||Kumar, K. (1980). Sargam. [CD] Bollywood: T-series|
DVD, Videos or Movies
|Reference||DVD, Videos or Movies|
|Format||Film title. (Year published). Director/Filmmaker. [Format] Place of origin: Film studio|
|Example|| Macbeth, (1948). [film]. Directed by Orson Welles
USA: Republic Picture
|Format||Broadcaster/Author’s surname, initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]|
|Example||Dan, J. Jenny. L. (2016) How to maintain a healthy diet. [podcast] Healthy talks. Available at: https:www.healthytalks.com [Accessed 6 May 2020]|
Images, Pictures, and Photographs
|Reference||Images, Pictures, and Photographs|
|Format||Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]|
|Example|| Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear.
Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015]
A youtube video doesn’t contain the author’s name you can use its title and other details such as:
- Video’s title
- Date of uploading
- Uploader or Channel’s name
- URL of the Video
- Accessed date
|Format||Title of Video (date uploaded) YouTube video, added by Username of uploader/channel name Online]. Available at URL [Accessed date]|
|Example||Dr. Bruce Lipton Explains How to Reprogram Your Subconscious Mind (10 July 2019) YouTube video, Fearless Soul[online] Available at https://youtu.be/OqLT_CNTNYA [Accessed 20 April 2020]|