Sample Undergraduate Bio-Medical Assignment

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Contribution of Next-gene Sequencing and Bioinformatics Advancements in Personalised Treatment and Precision Oncology

Section A

The research proposal is based on current technology and innovation for the improvement and treatment of cancer. The project’s cost is relatively high as it includes information regarding cancer treatment and includes the data collected from different sources.

Section B


Contribution of next-gene sequencing and bioinformatics advancements in personalized treatment and precision oncology


Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques and technologies have been influenced by rapid technological advancement. The NGS techniques are currently used to differentiate and categorize different diseases. Further, it involves the medical practitioners decoding the molecular structure of the living cell processes; also, NGS techniques are used for formulating disease prevention strategies and deriving out the clinical treatment process.

Furthermore, NGS can be seen as a breakthrough that can transform oncology processes (Macaulay and Voet, 2014). Using NGS, diseases that occur due to a human’s genetics can be tracked down to understand the disease better. The medical practitioners can accurately diagnose and predict the disease and further develop ways to cure the disease (Richards et al., 2008).


Keywords: NGS techniques, Bioinformatics, Precision oncology.


According to Basch et al. (2011), cancers and tumors are some of the world’s most dangerous and severe diseases of the world. These diseases prevail and occur in all parts of the world regardless of geographic locations and differences. Cancers and tumors are considered to be unpredictable. The symptoms of this disease are difficult to identify. Researchers and practitioners of Oncology argue that cancer such as tumors can be tracked down to the genes of the human, the cancer disease that occurs in the patience is also due to their genes.

The NGS and Bioinformatics are considered to be the revolution of Oncology. This research is based on determining the significant contributions of NGS and bioinformatics in oncology and personalized treatment. Further, this research will give recommendations regarding the topic of the research to medical practitioners.

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Section C


Next-generation sequencing is the modern technological technique that is used in the field of Medicine. The NGS techniques are the means of identifying different diseases and classifying them. The NGS techniques involve the complex nature of data which must be managed through an organized system; Bioinformatics is the modern-day technique that provides a systematic organization of medical data and information.

Using Bioinformatics, any data, regardless of its time, can be obtained easily within the short amount of time necessary for the techniques. Both NGS and Bioinformatics are considered helpful in the field of oncology for the prevention of tumor cancers and their cure. The current Research proposal contains all the details regarding how the research will be conducted. It includes the aims and objectives of the research that will be conducted and the outline of the method used to conduct the research. Furthermore, this research also consists of health and safety measures taken while researching, along with ethical considerations.

The research is based on the identification of the Nex-gen sequencing Treatment and protection in oncology. The study will determine the treatments and contributions for the patients and will be tested on the mice to get an overview of the medical health and other benefits of treatment. It has contributed to identifying and treating the process and procedures for Next-gen sequencing and Bioinformatics Advancements in Personalized Medicine and precision oncology.


This research will tend to identify the contributions of Next-gen Sequencing and Bioinformatics Advancements in Oncology, which means how the two techniques can treat tumor cancers. Furthermore, this research also aims to analyze the contributions of the two techniques in the personalized treatment of patients. The objectives formulated for the study are following:

To identify the contributions of Next-gen sequencing in Personalized Treatment and Precision Oncology.

To identify the contributions of Bioinformatics Advancements in Personalized Treatment and Precision Oncology.

To identify what other factors can contribute to Personalized Treatment and Precision Oncology.

To determine effective recommendations for the contribution of Next-gen Sequencing and Bioinformatics Advancements in Personalized Treatment and Precision Oncology.


This research aims to identify the contributions of Next-gen Sequencing and bioinformatics in oncology and personalized treatment of patients. Therefore, this research can determine the importance of NGS and bioinformatics in the treatment of tumor cancers and their prevention. Furthermore, the importance of these techniques in the personalized treatment of patients will also be studied in this research.  Medical practitioners can use this research’s findings to analyze the significance of the methods and allocate their resources accordingly for its advancements.


According to Oliver, Hart, and Klee (2015), the NGS techniques systematically organise data obtained from tests or patience. Therefore, efficient informatics and bioinformatics are the necessary tools to record, maintain and examine all the collected information.


Bioinformatics provides a system that enables quick and easy recovery of the data or information that can be used to decide on a cure. Medical practitioners use bioinformatics to develop a customized treatment process for different patients with different medical properties.


References are given below.

Section D


Based on several studies and literature, cancer is one of the leading diseases observed abnormal growth in normal cells. The availability of new technologies and innovation within DNA sequencing can make it possible to acquire the knowledge and information for a better cure for patients struggling against cancer.


The problems are concerned with cancer treatment using technological innovations based on the molecular profile of the individuals. The significance of NGS has been provided in the study of Koay, Schofield, and Jefford (2012) to show the support within oncology and cancer diagnostics.


The process of treatment and the technological innovations for treating cancer will be tested on Mus (Mouse) for getting the indication of the feasibility of therapy that has been designed for cancer, but the following study will be conducted on a secondary basis.


The mouse will be used for experimentation because it has genetic, biological, and behavioral characteristics that resemble human beings. Therefore the human conditions may be used on mice.


It is highly suitable for the medical sciences to use mice for testing and experiments as it has similar behavioral factors as human beings. The test will be performed after getting the testing permit to maintain society’s well-being and the animals. The measures will not be applicable as it is secondary research.

Section E

Lab equipment name Per unit cost
Low-Form Beaker £35.00 – £108.00
Tri-Corner Beaker £23.46 – £90.00
Heavy-Duty Beaker £29.74 – £86.00
Cuvette £19.80 – £84.00
PE Cuvette/Cell Washer with 500 mL £136.00
Carboy Closure £30.44 – £50.00
Dispensing Carboy £108.00 – £201.00
Beckman-Coulter DTX 880 Multimode Detector (room 0965) £108.00 – £201.00
Spectra MAX Gemini (room 3956) £205.00 – £299.00

Section F


There are several risks associated with the use of laboratory tools and equipment. The lab Test of cancer requires a lot of expertise and experience that will be highly managed. Another risk can be associated with the lab work and the tests that are carried out. The measures will not be applicable as it is secondary research.


The primary hazard observed within the test and analysis of NGS is laboratory work and other risks within testing over animals. The measures will not be applicable as it is secondary research.


The techniques that will be used to reduce the hazard and risk are taking effective measures that can reduce the risk and develop specific courses of action to reduce harmful consequences in terms of misuse of equipment and other laboratory ware.


The terms and conditions of the testing and other laboratory techniques will be measured with different techniques for maintaining the quality and effectiveness of tests and experiments.


Basch, E., Hesketh, P.J., Kris, M.G., Prestrud, A.A., Temin, S. and Lyman, G.H., 2011. Antiemetics: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. Journal of oncology practice, 7(6), pp.395-398.

Bennett, N.C. and Farah, C.S., 2014. Next-generation sequencing in clinical oncology: next steps towards clinical validation. Cancers, 6(4), pp.2296-2312.

Hong, H., Zhang, W., Shen, J., Su, Z., Ning, B., Han, T., Perkins, R., Shi, L., and Tong, W., 2013. The critical role of bioinformatics in translating vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data into personalized Medicine. Science China Life Sciences, 56(2), pp.110-118.

Koay, K., Schofield, P. and Jefford, M., 2012. Importance of health literacy in oncology. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 8(1), pp.14-23.

Kruglyak, K.M., Lin, E. and Ong, F.S., 2014. Next-generation sequencing in precision oncology: challenges and opportunities.

Macaulay, I.C. and Voet, T., 2014. Single cell genomics: advances and future perspectives. PLoS Genetics, 10(1), p.e1004126.

Oliver, G.R., Hart, S.N. and Klee, E.W., 2015. Bioinformatics for clinical next-generation sequencing. Clinical chemistry, 61(1), pp.124-135.

Richards, C.S., Bale, S., Bellissimo, D.B., Das, S., Grody, W.W., Hegde, M.R., Lyon, E. and Ward, B.E., 2008. ACMG recommendations for standards for interpretation and reporting of sequence variations: Revisions 2007. Genetics in Medicine, 10(4), p.294.

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