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Impact of Flavor Chewing Gum on Memory During Encoding and Recall Stage
Individuals may struggle for several reasons to focus on a task: distractions, headache, including loud environments. Many individuals will develop their learning techniques to help with their memory performance. One theory that gum can directly impact memory and cognition is tied to state-dependent learning regarding stimulus.
Bremer, Hoine, & Stern (1969) found that when individuals were tested in the same state, they made fewer mistakes than when they were in different states or testing under various stimuli. In this case, that stimulus is chewing gum. Wilkinson, Scholey, and Wesnes (2002) study considered both immediate and delayed word recall and found that chewing gum appeared to improve both spatial and numeric memory.
However, this study failed to establish direct support for chewing gum as a learning age and claimed that there could be other explanations for the apparent benefit. As a follow-up to this study, Baker et al. (2004) experimented to determine whether chewing, specifically, spearmint gum, affected initial and subsequent recall, which supported performance improvement, as a result of gum chewing. However, they did not explain the difference, which might have been related to the flavor specifically.
Therefore, this current study will help understand if there’s a difference in what stage (encoding or recall) flavor gum chewing is more affected on memory performance. Studies to date have not isolated flavor as a variable of interest or worked to determine to what extent gum flavor may be responsible for cognitive benefits.
However, by studying the impact of flavor on performance, a greater understanding of why and how gum-chewing impacts memory and cognition can be reached. It will allow educators and others interested in the function and enhancement of memory to use gum more efficiently to improve memory function.
Respectively, the current study aims to determine whether chewing gum’s flavor has an impact on the cognitive benefits associated with memory-related tasks. Therefore, the following hypothesis under investigation for this study is: Gum flavor at encoding stage will not have a significant effect on participants score; Gum flavor at recall stage will not have a significant effect on participants score; Gum flavor at encoding and recall stages, interaction will have a significant effect on participants score than standing alone.
Eighteen working adults (n=18) (9 females and 9 males) were already known to the researcher, with an age range between 18 and 35.
A 2×2 within-subject design experiment was used to investigate memory performance. The experiment had two Independent Variables, each with two levels (Flavor gum at encoding: peppermint vs. bubble-gum and flavor gum at recall: Peppermint vs. bubble-gum), including one Dependent Variable with one measurement (Number of words recalled). The data of all four tasks were recorded and analysed using SPSS software in 2-way AVONA.
The materials that were used to undertake this experiment are four lists of 15 words at the SAT vocabulary level for each participant (total of 72-word lists); four-word puzzles containing 10 non-related words for each participant, one for each task (total of 72-words lists); thirty-six peppermint gum; thirty-six bubble-gum; 72 plain pieces of paper for the participant to write the number of words they recall on; 18 pens.
Each participant was required to sign a consent form before they could take part in the experiment. Next, participants were given an information sheet, which explained the experiment conditions. The researcher also read them out aloud. There were four tasks for each participant to complete, and each task did have one list of fifteen words from the SAT vocabulary level test.
The content of each task was changed; however, all tasks were at the same level of difficulty. During each task, there was a different condition in each, and these areas followed: Task one, participants to complete the tasks while chewing peppermint gum at the encoding stage, but not at the recall stage; Task two, participants to complete the tasks while chewing bubble-gum gum at the encoding stage but not at recall stage; Task three, participants to complete the tasks while chewing peppermint gum at recall stage, but not at encoding stage; Task four, participants to complete the tasks while chewing bubble-gum at recall stage but not at the encoding stage.
At the recall stage, the participants had three minutes to write many words they can remember on paper. In-between the encoding and recall stage during all four tasks, all participants were required to complete a non-related word puzzle as a distraction that lasted roughly ten minutes.
All participants who voluntarily participate in the experiment completed all four tasks according to the rules. A two-way within-subjects ANOVA was conducted to compare the main effects of flavor gum at encoding and flavor gum at recall and the interaction effects between flavor gum at encoding and flavor gum at recall on the number of words recalled.
A two-way analysis of variance was conducted on the influence of two independent variables (Flavor gum at encoding and flavor gum at recall) on the number of words recalled. Flavor gum at encoding included two levels (peppermint and bubble-gum), and flavor gum at recall also consisted of two levels.
Dependent Variable: Score
|Encoding Code||Recall Code||Mean||Std. Deviation||N|
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: Score
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.||Partial Eta Squared|
a. R Squared =.559(Adjusted R Squared=.464)
The 3 F statistics reported in the experiment were found to be:
F= (1, 17) = 0.137, p = 0.717
F= (1, 17) = 12.736, p = 12.736
F= (1, 17) = 8.444, p = 0.012
As per the standards, the sig value should be less than 0.05 to accept the hypothesis. The sig value for gum flavors at the encoding and recall stage, interaction significantly affects participants score is 0.012. AS MENTIONED ABOVE, the F value in the table shows a highly significant interaction between gum flavor and participants’ score because the sig value of the corresponding value is less than 0.05, which is the standard value.
The statistical results obtained show that chewing gum flavor affects the cognitive learning process. The results declared that at the decoding stage, the sig value and its respective f value are not acceptable as the sig value has been found out to be significantly less than the alpha level. The F value in the ANOVA table should be higher concerning the obtained sig value as it represents the comparison of the sig value with the alpha level.
From the results, it has been found that the changing of flavors of gum while recalling stage has been beneficial for the cognition of the participants. Moreover, it has further been revealed that changing gum flavors during encoding and decoding stages both conjointly affect the cognition of participants, which is reflected through participants’ scores.
It has been explored that the results obtained through the ANOVA table show the acceptance of H1 and H3. This implies that the gum flavors significantly impact the score of participants and increase their memory at the encoding stage. Furthermore, the results also depict that the H3 hypothesis is accepted, which means that the gum flavors, both in encoding and recalling stages, interaction have a significant impact on the score of participants and increases their memory at the encoding stage.
However, the H2 hypothesis is rejected because of insignificant results obtained through ANOVA. This implies that there is no significant impact of gum flavors at the recall stage on the participants’ scores.
The study of Baker et al. (2004) also explored a significant effect of gum flavors and chewing specific flavored gum on the cognitive process. In conclusion, it can be said that chewing flavored gum can influence the memory of the participants during the encoding stage and at encoding and recall interactions. It can be related to the main findings from Bremer, Honie, and Stern (1969), which explored that recall procedure can be simulated based on the state of learning, which is then linked with chewing flavored gum.
The research has concluded that the chewing gum of specific flavor during encoding and recall an interaction for the learning process can positively affect memory, which can also be linked with the studies of Wilkinson, Scholey, and Wesnes (2002). As per the analysis of the results, it can be recommended to students chew the same flavored gum during encoding and recalling stages. It helps the students remain in a specific learning state and helps in recalling true values and numeric data.
Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E., & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207–210.
Goodwin, D. R., Powell, B., Bremer, D., Hoine, H., & Stern, J. (1969). Alcohol and recall: State-dependent effects in man. Science, 163(3873), 1358–1360.
Scholey, A. (2004). Further issues regarding the possible modulation of cognitive function by the chewing gum: Response to Stephens and Tulving (2004) and Tucha et al. (2004). Appetite, 43(2), 221–223.
Stephens, R., & Tunney, R. J. (2004). Role of glucose in chewing gumrelated facilitation of cognitive function. Appetite, 43(2), 211–213.
Tucha, O., Mecklinger, L., Maier, K., Hammerl, M., & Lange, K. W. (2004). Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite, 42(3), 327–329.
Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A., & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235–236.
Student Research Proposal Form
The purpose of this form is to ensure that the investigation you are commencing is appropriate in terms of scope and ethics. Before submitting please ensure that you have read Arden University Ethics Policy and the Guidelines for Completing the Student Research Proposal Form.
Under no circumstances should the recruitment of participants begin until written approval (usually by email) is received.
By submitting this form, you are confirming that
- You have read Arden University’s Policy on Ethics
- You have read the Guidelines for Completing the Student Research Proposal Form
- You have completed this form fully and appropriately
- You have the necessary skills and competencies to carry out the investigation
- You have the necessary consent from any relevant organisation or agency (e.g., their employer) to carry out this investigation
Your name on this form and subsequent submission will be regarded as your electronic signature.
If your investigation involves the use of human participants, you MUST append at the end of this file:
- Participant Information Sheet and Consent Form
- Any materials used (see later section)
- Debrief Sheet
In most cases, this proposal is not assessed, OR it is assessed on a Pass/Fail basis. If this applies, please submit your completed proposal to your supervisor or tutor for formative feedback.
Research Ethics Checklist
|1. Student’s Details|
(family name last)
|Email address||[email protected]|
|Contact address||10 Harwood Avenue, Lytham St. Anne’s|
|Telephone number||07465 855 661|
|2. Programme Details|
|Level of Study||Masters level 7|
|Module Name and Code||Cognitive Psychology PT1|
|Supervisor or Module Leader’s Name||James Yeung|
|Supervisor or Module Leader’s Email Address||[email protected]|
|3. Proposed Research|
|What is the title of the research? (can be a provisional title)||The impact of flavour chewing gum on memory during encoding and recall stage|
|What are the aims and objectives of the research (maximum: 250 words)?|
|Aim and objective: This study aims to determine whether the impact on flavored chewing gum at the encoding stage is different in results than chewing flavor gum at the recall stage, to identify if chewing at either stage
have an improvement on memory, including testing each stage with different flavor chewing gums to check if there’s any impact on the cognitive benefits that are associated with gum chewing on memory-related tasks.Independent variable 1:
Gum flavour at encoding (Peppermint Vs. Bubble Gum)Independent variable 2:
Gum Flavour at recall (Peppermint Vs. Bubble Gum)Dependent variable: Name and measurement
Performance / Number of Words Recalled
|It is a 2×2 ANOVA because it has 2 IV’S and at least two levels each.|
|2X2 Factorial Design||IV2 – Recall
|IV1 – Encoding
|Instruments/Materials used for the experiment
A lab experiment was used, as the primary approach for the study. The experiment was designed to measure the impact of flavored chewing gum on four conditions. (Encoding peppermint, encoding bubble-gum, recall peppermint,
recall bubble-gum). In total, each participant completed four tests, four lists of 15 SAT level vocabulary words created by the researcher, and four-word searches with SAT level words, not found on the list of words
memorized, were used to test the participants according to the method. Participant information:
The materials required to undertake this experiment are four lists of 15 words at the SAT vocabulary level; four-word puzzles containing ten non-related words; thirty-six peppermint gum; thirty-six bubble-gum; marking sheet;
and a pen.Literature Review:
Theoretically speaking, the idea that gum can directly impact memory and cognition is tied to state-deepened learning. This approach to learning states that when the state of learning is similar, in terms of stimulus, to the
situation during recall, recall is more complete. More specifically, Bremer, Honie, & Stern (1969) found that when students studied and tested in the same state, they made fewer mistakes than when they were in differing
states or testing under different stimuli. In this case, that stimulus is chewing gum.Wilkinson, Scholey, and Wesnes (2002) were among the first to study the impact of chewing gum on test performance. The study considered
both immediate and delayed word recall and found that chewing gum appeared to improve spatial and numeric memory. However, this study failed to establish direct support for chewing gum as a learning age and claimed that they
could be other explanations for the apparent benefit. As a follow-up to this study, Baker, Bedance, Zellaby, and Aggleton (2004) experimented to determine whether chewing. Specifically, spearmint gum affected initial and
subsequent recall, which supported performance improvement because of gum chewing, but which did not explain the difference, which might have been related to the flavor specifically.
|The research methodology (brief overview)|
This study is to determine whether the impact on chewing flavor gum at the encoding stage is different in results than chewing flavor gum at the recall stage. To identify if chewing a type of flavor gum at either stage has improved memory, including testing each stage with different flavor chewing gums to check if there’s any impact on the cognitive benefits associated with gum chewing on memory-related tasks.This study will identify if individuals memorize more words during chewing gum at the encoded stage or if chewing gum impacts the recall stage, including testing with two types of gum. In total, participants will take part in four tests. These tests are as followed: Test 1 (T1), Test 2 (T2), Test 3 (T3), Test 4 (T4).T1 – The participant will be given a list containing 15 words to study for 3 minutes, including peppermint flavor chewing gum to chew on at the same time, throughout the encoding stage, after the 3 minutes, the list was taken away from the participant and the participant needed to stop chewing on the gum. The participant then was given a word puzzle containing ten non-related words being used as a distraction for 5minutes. After 5 minutes, the participant was asked to verbally recall all 15 words back but without chewing gum.T2 – The participant will be given a list containing 15 words to study for 3 minutes, including bubble-gum flavor chewing gum to chew on at the same time, throughout the encoding stage, after the 3 minutes, the list was taken away from the participant and the participant needed to stop chewing on the gum. The participant then was given a word puzzle containing 10 non-related words being used as a distraction for 5minutes. After 5 minutes, the participant was asked to verbally recall all 15 words back but without chewing gum.T3 – The participant will repeat T1 but chewing peppermint chewing gum during the recall stage but not at the encoding stage.T4 – The participant will repeat T2 but chewing bubble gum during the recall stage but not at the encoding stage.The researcher will then collate the results, based on the number of words each participant recalled while chewing, chewing gum at the encoding stage and again at the recall stage, to determine whether there is a difference in results.
The researcher has also considered’ Chewing Gum Allergies’ in this respect the researcher will ensure all participants taking part do not have any types of food allergies. Before being allowed to take part.
|Start date of the investigation||27th March 2018|
|End date of the investigation||29th March 2018|
|The date on which this proposal was completed||26th March 2018|
|4. Declaration: Please type the word YES in ONE of the following|
|A. This investigation will involve the collection of data from human participants||Yes||A|
|B. This investigation will NOT involve the collection of data from human participants but will require permission from an external organisation||No||B|
|C. This investigation will NOT involve the collection of data from human participants, though it may collect data about individuals from published matter (e.g., previously published interviews or behavioural data)||No||C|
If you typed YES in Box A then please complete all sections of this form
If you typed YES in Box B then answer question 4b and submit the form, do NOT complete any other sections
If you typed YES in Box C then submit the form as it is and do NOT complete any other sections
|4b. Details of External Organisation|
You indicated that you require permission from an external organisation. Please indicate the organization’s name, the nature of the permission you require, and the expected date at which you will obtain this. Please note
that you will need to submit a letter on a headed note paper or a formal email trail from the relevant parties.
|5. Human Participants|
|What are the main demographics of the sample? (e.g., age, gender, and so on)||All participants will be already known to the researcher, such as family and friends, of both genders, predominately between the ages of 18 and 35, though may include older/non-traditional participants who are available|
|How will participants be recruited (e.g., from where and how they will be asked or invited)?||All participants will be invited by email to take part.|
|What will be the target sample size? (Indicate the numbers in any subgroups, such as number of males, number of females, etc.)||Eighteen participants comprising of 9 females and 9 males.|
|How was the sample size determined?||Based on a within-subject design.|
|6. Key Question Checks: Type the word YES or NO|
|6.1 Is there any reason why you cannot provide an information sheet?||No|
|6.2 Is there any reason why participants will not be able to sign a consent form?||No|
|6.3 Will participation be mandatory (and not voluntary)?||No|
|6.4 Is there any reason why participants will not be able to withdraw at any time if they wish?||No|
|6.5 Is there any reason why participants will not omit any question that they don’t want to answer or any part of the task they do not wish to do?||Yes|
|6.6 Is there any reason why the participants’ data cannot be kept completely confidential?||No|
|6.7 Is your research dependent upon ethical approval or another form of consent from another organisation?||No|
|6.8 Will the investigation involves ANY of the following:|
|• Children under 18||No|
|• Adults who are unable to give consent for themselves||No|
|• Young offenders||No|
|• Anyone in a subordinate role to that of the researcher||No|
|• Anyone who has a dependent relationship with the researcher (e.g., those in care homes, etc.)||No|
|• Other vulnerable groups||No|
|6.9 Will the investigation require a gatekeeper’s co-operation to access participants (e.g., teacher, self-help group leader, nursing home director, parent, or guardian)?||No|
|6.10 Will deception be necessary (i.e., deliberate withholding of information that could have caused participants to decline to participate had they been given the information beforehand)?||No|
|6.11 Will the investigation involve discussion or presentation of images or information of a sensitive nature (e.g., sexual activity, illegal activity, drug use, disturbing images, and so on)?||No|
|6.12 Will drugs, placebos, food, alcohol, nicotine, vitamins, or other substances be administered to participants?||No|
|6.13 Will the investigation involve invasive, intrusive, or potentially physically harmful procedures?||No|
|6.14 Will blood or tissue samples be obtained from participants?||No|
|6.15 Will pain or any discomfort for the participants be likely to result from the investigation?||No|
|6.16 Will the researcher be exposed to any conditions that may be distressing or harmful or present any conceivable personal risk?||No|
|6.17 Will participants face any risk (e.g., physical, psychological, social, legal, or economic) in taking part in this research?||No|
For each question where you have answered YES, please provide a justification and details below. You must address all questions to which you answered YES to and ONLY those.
|7. Details of Answers to Key Questions|
|Question number||Your justification and details|
|6.5.||They cannot omit to respond to prompts within the vocabulary test or refuse to take the SAT word game. If they should do either, their data will not be usable in the larger study and will have to be removed from the sample.|
Intellectual Property Rights and Data Ownership
Where no external contract exists, Arden University asserts ownership of primary data generated during research undertaken by researchers in its employment and by registered students.
Where the research is carried out under a grant or contract, the agreement’s terms will determine ownership and rights to exploit the data.
FOR TUTOR USE ONLY
|Reviewer 1 Name|
|Reviewer 2 Name|
|Recommendation (Reject/ Approve / Go to Panel)|
Participant Information Sheets
The impact of flavour chewing gum on memory during the encoding and recall stage?
What is the purpose of the study?
This study aims to determine whether or changing the flavour of gum chewed has any impact on the cognitive benefits associated with gum chewing on memory-related tasks.
Why have I been invited?
You have been invited to take part in this study as you are already known to me and have indicated that you are free when the study will take part.
Do I have to take part?
What will happen to me if I take part?
- The experiment should take no longer than 60 minutes of your time and you will only need to visit once.
- I will not need to take any personal details from you other than your initials, indicating that you have consented and understand what will happen.
- You will take part in 1 experiment which involves 4 tasks.
- You as the participant will be asked to chew different types of favoured gum during each task a different type of favour gum in each task.
- The experiment is designed to measure gum flavor’s impact on the benefits of gum chewing, based on two different flavors of gum chewed, when contrasted with not chewing gum at all. four lists of 15 SAT level vocabulary words, created by the researcher, and four-word searches with SAT level words, not found on the list of words memorized, were used to test the participants according to the method.
Expenses and payments?
As this study is being conducted to fulfill a requirement for my masters’ course, there will not be any participants. However, I am happy to provide you with a copy of the report once it is completed to read what results were found from this study.
What will I have to do?
To memorise a list of words while chewing on favour chewing gum.
What are the possible disadvantages and risks of taking part?
There are no known risks to taking part and health & safety procedures will be followed to ensure you do not sustain injury while entering and leaving the room where the experiment will occur.
What are the possible benefits of taking part?
We cannot promise the study will help you but the information we get from the study will increase the understanding of the Stroop Effect on an individuals’ attention during different interference in the form of sad and happy music.
What if there is a problem?
I will provide you with the contact email for myself and I will happily help you. It is also how you can ask for your data to not be used up to 24 hours after participating. If you wish to make a complaint about this study, you can contact my supervisor at Arden University.
Will my taking part in the study be kept confidential?
Your confidentiality will be safeguarded during and after the study. Any documents associated with the study will be stored in a locked filing cabinet and a password encrypted file. This is in line with the Data Protection Act 1998. Your data will be used for this study’s sole purpose and will only be stored until completing my Masters in 2019.
What will happen if I don’t carry on with the study?
If you withdraw from the study all the information and data collected from you, to date, will be destroyed and your name removed from all the study files.
What will happen to the results of the research study?
The results will be written up into a short report and submitted to Arden University as part of my ‘Cognitive Psychology Assignment’. They will not be published, and no names of participants will be used in any of the write-ups.
Signing this agreement means you understand and agree to all the conditions and are a willing participant and you have also acknowledged that you have no types of food allergies.
PARTICIPANT DEBRIEF FORM
I wish to take this opportunity to thank you for participating in this study entitled ‘The impact of flavour chewing gum on memory during encoding stage and recall stage’ Without willing participants like yourself, this study would not have been possible.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of changing the flavour of gum chewed, to strengthen the benefits of gum chewing on memory and cognition. Studies to date have not isolated flavour, as a variable of interest, or worked to determine to what extent gum flavour may be responsible for cognitive benefits. However, by studying the impact of flavour on performance, greater understanding of why and how gum chewing impacts memory and cognition, can be reached. This will allow educators and others interested in the function and enhancement of memory to more effectively use gum to improve memory function.
Please remembers that you will remain anonymous throughout the data analysis and the write up. Furthermore, any information gathered about you during the experiment e.g. your response sheet will be stored according to the Data Protection Act (1988).
You can also find important contact details below if you wish to withdraw your data from the study up to 24 hours after participation.
Many thanks, Jasmine Gerraghty (master’s Student at Arden University)
Researcher Contact Details: Jasmine Jane Miranda Gerraghty
Email: [email protected]
Research Supervisor Contact Details: James
Email: [email protected]
Arden University Ltd
Midland Management Centre
1A Brandon Lane
Registered in England No: 2450180
Vat No: 7053350 66
Table of each participants data
|Number of words recalled||Overall results based on which flavoured gum had more impact on the results|
|Gum flavour at encoding stage:||Peppermint = 1|
|Bubble-gum = 2|
|Gum flavour at recall Stage:||Peppermint = 1|
|Bubble-gum = 2|
|Participant no:||Chewing Peppermint Gum Flavour at Encoding Stage||Chewing Bubble-gum Gum Flavour at Encoding Stage||Chewing Peppermint Gum Flavour at Recall Stage||Chewing Bubble-gum Gum Flavour at Encoding Recall Stage||Encoding code||Recall code|