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Plagiarism is copying other’s work without crediting them, and the consequences can be serious. Here is the list of different types of plagiarisms with examples.

1- Clone/Copy-Paste plagiarism

This type of Plagiarism occurs when a person steals someone’s entire work word-to-word and uses as their own without making any changes to it and without crediting the source.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Modern education relies on computers and the internet. When the learners are considering to choose between online or traditional education, the difference that comes to their mind is the difference between sitting in front of a computer and sitting in a traditional classroom. These are not only the difference in online and traditional education, but there is also a difference in learning style, technology, learning environment, etc., which affects the learner. Let's see what the differences in modern and traditional education are?Modern education relies on computers and the internet. When the learners are considering to choose between online or traditional education, the difference that comes to their mind is the difference between sitting in front of a computer and sitting in a traditional classroom. These are not only the difference in online and traditional education, but there is also a difference in learning style, technology, learning environment, etc., which affects the learner. Let's see what the differences in modern and traditional education are?

2- CTRL-C plagiarism

It happens when a person copies significant portions from a single document or source without making any changes.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Researchers estimated in 2017 that there would be 3.7 billion health app downloads by the end of the year. Of these, apps for diet, physical activity, and weight loss were among the most popular. This is not without reason, as tracking physical activity and weight loss progress on-the-go can be an effective way of managing weight. One study found that consistent tracking of physical activity helped with weight loss. Meanwhile, a review study found a positive correlation between weight loss and the frequency of monitoring food intake and exercise. Even a device as simple as a pedometer can be a useful weight-loss tool. (Strudwick,2018)Researchers estimated in 2017 that there would be 3.7 billion health app downloads by the end of the year. Of these, apps for diet, physical activity, and weight loss were among the most popular. One study found that consistent tracking of physical activity helped with weight loss. Meanwhile, a review study found a positive correlation between weight loss and the frequency of monitoring food intake and exercise.

3- Find-Replace

This type of plagiarism occurs when you copy someone's content; replacing keywords and synonyms without changing the information.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Researchers estimated in 2017 that there would be 3.7 billion health app downloads by the end of the year. Of these, apps for diet, physical activity, and weight loss were among the most popular. This is not without reason, as tracking physical activity and weight loss progress on-the-go can be an effective way of managing weight. One study found that consistent tracking of physical activity helped with weight loss. Meanwhile, a review study found a positive correlation between weight loss and the frequency of monitoring food intake and exercise. Even a device as simple as a pedometer can be a useful weight-loss tool. (Strudwick,2018)Researchers anticipated in 2017 that there would be 3.7 billion health app downloads by the end of the year. Of these, apps for diet, exercise, and weight loss were among the most popular. This is not without reason, as tracking physical activity and weight loss progress on-the-go can be an effective method of managing weight. According to a study, consistent tracking of the physical movement helped with weight loss. Meanwhile, a review study found a positive correlation between weight loss and the frequency of monitoring food consumption and workout. Even a device as simple as a pedometer can be a useful weight-loss tool. (Strudwick,2018)

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4- Remix Plagiarism

It’s a remix of various documents where a person collects multiple records, extracts the key information, paraphrases, and compiles it together in a single assignment or dissertation.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised version with paraphrasing
1- Modern education relies on computers and the internet. When the learners are considering to choose between online or traditional education, the difference that comes to their mind is the difference between sitting in front of a computer and sitting in a traditional classroom.
2. Smart Learning or intelligent education includes new educational contexts in which the importance is focused on students' use of technology at their fingertips.
Smart learning
Education is the fundamental right of every individual. Modern education depends on computer and internet. There is a massive difference between sitting in front of a computer and sitting in a traditional classroom. These days technology is available for students on their fingertips.
This modern education is called 'Smart learning.'

5- Recycle

It's a kind of self-plagiarism where a person uses his/her previous work in the new assignment or project work.

6- Hybrid

It’s a type of plagiarism where a person uses the authentic cited sources, copy paste a few passages without including the correct citations and references.

7- Mashup/ Patchwork Plagiarism

Mashup plagiarism occurs when a person copies information from multiple sources without citations. It includes slight paraphrasing, but most of the words and sentences resemble the original work. It is also called patchwork, and it is a more severe and hidden form of plagiarism. It requires advanced plagiarism checking tools to detect it.

Example

Original TextMashup ( patchwork)
1. The globe is heating up. Both land and oceans are warmer now than record-keeping began in 1880, and temperatures are still ticking upward. (Pappas,2017)
2. The planet is warming, from the North Pole to the South Pole. Since 1906, the global average surface temperature ...
3. Many climate scientists agree that significant societal, economic, and ecological damage would result if global average temperatures rose by more than 2 °C (3.6 °F) in such a short time.
The Earth is warming from the North Pole to the South Pole.
The globe is warming up, including both land and oceans are warmer now than record-keeping began in 1880.
Many climate scientists conclude that considerable societal, economic and ecological damage would cause if the global average temperature increases more than 2 degrees C in such a short time.
The temperature is still growing.

8- 404 Error

It occurs if a person collects various documents compile it together as a single document with inaccurate citations and fake references of the sources that do not exist.

Original Text404 Error: fake reference
1. The globe is heating up. Both land and oceans are warmer now than record-keeping began in 1880, and temperatures are still ticking upward. (Pappas,2017)
2. The planet is warming, from the North Pole to the South Pole. Since 1906, the global average surface temperature ...
3. Many climate scientists agree that significant societal, economic, and ecological damage would result if global average temperatures rose by more than 2 °C (3.6 °F) in such a short time.

According to many studies of this year

The planet is warming from the North pole to the South Pole. Both land and oceans are warmer now than record-keeping began in 1880.
Many climate scientists agree that significant societal, economic, and ecological damage would result if global average temperatures rose by more than 2 degrees C in such a short time.

9- Aggregator

It's a type of plagiarism in which a document has accurate citations and references, but the main content remains plagiarized.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version

Developing communication skills can help many aspects of your life, from your professional career to social gatherings, to your family life.

In today's hectic world, we rely heavily on sharing information, resulting in greater emphasis being placed on having good communication skills.
Good verbal and written communication skills are essential in order to deliver and understand information quickly and accurately. Being able to communicate effectively is a vital life skill and should not be overlooked.

(Beqiri,2017)

Good verbal and written communication skills are essential in order to deliver and understand information quickly and accurately.
In today's hectic world, we rely heavily on sharing information, resulting in greater emphasis being placed on having good communication skills.
Developing communication skills can help many aspects of your life, from your professional career to social gatherings, to your family life. (Beqiri,2017)

10- Retweet Plagiarism

It includes the type of documents with accurate citations, but the content's words and sentence structure resemble the original work.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
While there are endless diets, supplements, and meal replacement plans claiming rapid weight loss, most scientific evidence is lacking. There are, however, some strategies backed by science that do have an impact on weight management.
(Strudwick,2018)
There are numerous diets, supplements, and meal replacement plans claiming rapid weight loss, most lack any scientific proof. However, some strategies backed by science that do have an impression on weight management are also available from the literature.
( Strudwick,2018)

11- Accidental Plagiarism

This kind of plagiarism occurs when someone copies others' work unintentionally as he/she is unaware of plagiarism or the existence of similar content.

12- Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing without crediting the sources is considered as plagiarism. However, it is important to rephrase the collected information in your own words and cite the sources accurately. If you translate the content from another language, still you should not forget to credit the source appropriately.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Besides dieting, exercising is one of the most common strategies employed by those trying to shed extra pounds. It burns calories, and this plays a key role in weight loss. In addition to helping you lose weight, exercise has been linked to many other benefits, including improved mood, stronger bones, and a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. (Raman et al.,2019)Exercise is the most commonly used method by those trying to lose weight along with a diet. Apart from weight loss exercise has many other health benefits; it makes your bones stronger, improves mood and reduces the risk of chronic diseases.

13- Plagiarism of Reasoning and Style

It occurs when someone rephrases the entire content and structure of sentences line by line resembling the author's reasoning style without citing the source.

Example

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Besides dieting, exercising is one of the most common strategies employed by those trying to shed extra pounds. It burns calories, and this plays a key role in weight loss. In addition to helping you lose weight, exercise has been linked to many other benefits, including improved mood, stronger bones, and a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. (Raman et al.,2019)Apart from dieting, exercise is one of the most common methods followed by people trying to lose weight. It plays a key role in weight loss by burning extra calories. Exercise helps in weight loss and provides many health benefits like improved mood, stronger bones, and a reduced risk of chronic diseases.

14- Plagiarism of Metaphors

Metaphors are used to express ideas creatively. This kind of plagiarism occurs when someone copies the metaphors used by another author to enhance the personal work without referencing the source.

Example         

Original TextPlagiarised Version
Her tears were a river flowing down her cheeks.I could not see her crying as her tears were flowing down her cheeks when she was leaving for the hostel.

15- Plagiarism of Ideas or Solutions

This kind of plagiarism occurs when you copy someone’s ideas in your project or assignment as a piece of evidence or solution. You need to credit the source with proper citation, and if you neglect to cite the source, it is called "plagiarism of ideas." Students find it difficult to differentiate between general knowledge and creative ideas.

Example:

General knowledge: The definition of stress and anxiety is a general knowledge innovative idea/solution: Overcoming anxiety is an innovative idea.

Example

General knowledgeCreative IdeasPlagiarism of Ideas
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure.
Stress is a type of psychological pain. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance.
6 Powerful Brain Hacks to Cope with Everyday Anxiety
1. Convince your brain that you're safe
2. Practice positive thinking
3. Journal to release your emotions
4. Accept that you can't control everything
5. Habituate yourself to fear
6. Try mindfulness
(Schwantes)
Here is a list of magical secrets to overcoming anxiety and stress.
1. Train your brain to think positively. 
2. Convince your mind that you are safe no matter how difficult the situation you have.
3. Note down your emotions and fears.
4. Let go things as you can’t control everything.
5. Make yourself habituated to fear.
6. Try meditation 

16- Incremental Plagiarism

When you copy someone’s speeches, phrases, dialogues or quotes making a few changes in it without crediting them, it is considered as incremental plagiarism.

Example

Suppose you attended a seminar and you have recorded or noted down the speech of the speaker. You liked the speech and want to use it in your writing by paraphrasing it. In this case, you need to credit the speaker and the seminar; otherwise, it’ll be considered as incremental plagiarism.

17- Global Plagiarism

It’s much similar to incremental plagiarism. The only difference is it includes direct copying of speeches, phrases, dialogues and quotes without making any changes.

Example

Many people copy the entire discussion or speeches of the politicians, celebrities and famous personalities without crediting them.

In-text Citation and References

The in-text citation includes the details of the source besides the text you obtained from other sources.

The reference list includes all the details about the source and author at the end of the document.

There are various referencing styles such as APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard style for the in-text citation and bibliography. You can follow the one suggested by your professor or school. The in-text citation includes the author's name and year of publication, whereas reference contains all details, including the title and URL.

Example of In-text Citation (APA)

The globe is heating up. Both land and oceans are warmer now than record-keeping began in 1880, and temperatures are still ticking upward. This temperature rise, in a nutshell, is global warming. (Pappas, 2017)

Example of Reference (APA)

Pappas, 2017: What is global warming? Retrieved from:

https://www.livescience.com/37003-global-warming.html

 How to Avoid Plagiarism?

If you’re worried about accidental plagiarism, you can use a plagiarism checker before submitting your paper. The software compares your document to a database of sources and highlights any similarities or missing citations. Here are some general rules to avoid plagiarism in an academic paper. 

  • Learn about various types of plagiarisms.
  • Cite the sources properly.
  • Try to understand the meaning of the content and paraphrase the content correctly.
  • Do not depend on the entire content of other’s and incorporate your own ideas in your work.
  • Learn about the citation style you are following to avoid improper citation and references.
  • Check your paper through plagiarism checking tools.

Here is a comprehensive article on how to avoid plagiarism. Avoid all types of plagiarism.

If you’re worried about accidental plagiarism, you can use a plagiarism checker before submitting your paper. The software compares your document to a database of sources and highlights any similarities or missing citations.

There are lots of plagiarism checkers to choose from online, with different levels of accuracy and security. Read our comparison of the best plagiarism checkers to help you decide.

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