This research will be conducted to fulfil the study's aim, which is to analyze the influence of public health on health promotion intervention within the case of Saudi Arabia as a developing country. To fulfil the research's aim and objectives, the researcher will use a qualitative approach along with secondary sources of data regarding public health promotion intervention of Saudi Arabia.
The researcher will examine relevant secondary sources and then present a systematic overview of the literature to understand the impact of public health on the public health promotion intervention in the region of Saudi Arabia.
From the overview of past literature, it can be found that there is an increased interest of researchers and practitioners concerning public health and its promotion (Baum, 2016). The information and know-how regarding public health are important because public health programs and public health intervention are based on this knowledge and research (Boulware et al., 2016).
Now, several different elements tend to impact public health and programs related to public health. The governmental and health organisation has shifted their focus from removing and preventing the disease from towards the socio-economic, behavioural, and environmental factors that significantly impact public health (Wiene et al., 2017).
From the research point of view, in the past, there are very few researches which have been carried out in this regard. Different countries aim to improve their public health by introducing effective programs and interventions (Watts et al., 2015). The health sector of a nation continually works towards ensuring that their public health-related goals are met efficiently to make a significant mark.
The promotion of public health is undeniably an important aspect of public health. There are several types of research that have been carried out in this regard (Rosenbaum, 2011). Health promotion is carried out to raise awareness among the public regarding the negative consequences of a disease or notify the public regarding living a healthy lifestyle.
Health promotion is an expression in practical terms as a source that lets the public lead a productive life regarding social, economic, and individual perspective because health is a source for a routine life, not an object that can be ignored easily (Anderson et al., 2005). According to WHO, public health is an important human right, and all individuals should have the right to get rudimentary resources (WHO, 2018).
The interventions for the promotion of public health are carried out to ensure that public health is not at stake and that the public is aware of the importance of their health (Nutley, Smith, & Davies, 2000). Through public health intervention, the government can control several health problems.
Regarding Saudi Arabia's public health, it has been notified by WHO that more than 60% of the population is inactive, which is quite alarming concerning the individuals' health (WHO, 2011). Physical activity is of great importance because it mainly decreases the many common diseases like diabetes, hypertension, various cancer, and heart disease.
It also prevents one of the major problems regarding health, i.e., obesity (Frohlich & Potvin, 2008). It has been established, that with time, the health sector of Saudi Arabia has been experiencing growth. However, there still are certain problems that are faced (Almalki, FitzGerald, & Clark, 2011).
One of the major problems of the health sector of Saudi Arabia is that there is a language barrier among the physicians, doctors, and patients. Although there has been some research carried out in the context of public health and its impact on health promotion intervention, there is still a need for more research to evaluate public health in terms of promotion.
Yet, according to Sharaf (2010), social media platforms, particularly Twitter, have inculcated new prospects for definitely influencing the health of audiences at large. As Saudi Arabia is coined to be the country with the highest number of Twitter users, practitioners are of the opinion that Twitter can be used to contribute to the propagation of health promotion ideas.
According to Mckenzie (2016), with the help of developing different health intervention promotion programs, public health is improving daily. The researcher needs to carry out more research to ensure that public health is impacted efficiently. It is the country's major goal to ensure that the public is provided with high-quality healthcare services so that
the well-being of society is promoted. According to Peltzer (2011), the health care promotional campaigns and interventions are focused more on developed nations than developing nations. Several different factors tend to have a significant impact on the health promotion intervention. Socio-economic factors play a critical role in the lives of the people, affecting each individual's health in many ways.
Every country has its own set of characteristics that dominate over other factors compared to other places according to the specific policies and particular laws. But few general ones can be easily recognized in all parts of the world.
The present research's main aim is engrossed towards analysing the influence of public health on the health promotion intervention within the case of Saudi Arabia as a developing country. The objectives of the study are as follows,
Based on the preliminary overview of the literature review on this topic, the research question that is going to be answered by this research is:
How can public health be determined through various factors affecting public health promotion in the context of Saudi Arabia?
This research will be carried out to analyse the impact of public health on public health promotion intervention, specifically in Saudi Arabia. In terms of the public health of Saudi Arabia, the company is experiencing significant improvement; however, they are still lacking in providing high-quality health care advice through public health promotion intervention. One of the major problems prevalent in the region is that there is a language barrier among the physicians, doctors, and patients.
The study has established that certain researches have been carried out concerning public health and its impact on evaluating the health promotion intervention. This particular research is significant because it focuses on analysing how public health in the region of Saudi Arabia impacts their health promotion intervention.
There are not many academic types of research that have been carried out on Saudi Arabia's public health. This research will contribute positively towards the existing body of literature that is mainly inclined towards the public health of western countries (Glanz & Bishop, 2010). One of the major hindrances with the effective provision of public health to a country's citizens is that there is no consistent framework of public health that promotes the evaluation of public health promotion intervention (Frieden, 2010).
This research is particularly significant because it will look into different factors that combine to form the public health of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it is also going to address the issues faced by the country regarding the implementation and evaluation of their health campaigns. The major rationale behind this research is that there are very few research studies that have been carried out.
The following study comprises five major sections: introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and conclusion, and recommendations. The first chapter of the study highlights the research study's topic along with the research problem, aims and objectives of the study, rationale, and significance. It provides a brief introduction to the study.
The second chapter of this study was a literature review. In this chapter, the researcher identifies the study variables and includes different theories and backgrounds of the study concerning the view and opinion of different researchers. It includes a theoretical framework and the development of a hypothesis.
The third chapter of the study was methodology. In this section, the researcher identified the methods and techniques used in a research study for examining the results. Data collection methods and techniques are described in this chapter, along with ethical considerations and limitations.
The fourth chapter of the study was findings and analysis. In this chapter, the data obtained from different sources are analysed and evaluated based on different techniques and methods. The major portion of this section includes analysis of results and discussion.
The last chapter of the study is the conclusion and recommendations. It concludes the entire research along with summarized findings of the study.
Public Health is known for the inhibition of disease, health promotions, healthily improving lifestyle, and systematized society effort. The major focus is on the health betterment of the population and doing interventions for the prevention of disease. The protection, promotion, prolonging of public life, and betterment of society's health are the main goals of public health (Brownson, 2017).
The progress in the social machinery by health promotions satisfies the people regarding maintenance and betterment of health. Better cure of advanced and severe diseases is required, specifically in developing countries. The interventions of Public health regarding the reduction in risk factors related to health are significant. The preventions are done of medicines to preserve or promote the health and decrease the suffering when health is impaired (Gostin, 2016).
There are major disciplines in which health sectors mostly perform to promote health. A healthy nutrient keeps the balance among health and any disease, and reproductive health is taken care of the most because it includes mental, physical, and social health that should be healthy. In environmental health, the approach is to classify the particular biological or physical aspects that present all health risks.
It can be replaced and modified to protect people from it, like sanitization of water, disposal of waste management, etc. (Frieden, 2010). The combination of health education and economics is beneficial for health promotions and their interventions. It helps in the substitution use of resources and their effective utilization in the health service sector.
Many types of research have been done that focus on the distribution, frequency, biostatistics, and causes of disease. Such researches are an action to attain more information about the technical or scientific overview of public health. The health service sector management tries to work together and utilize the available resources to achieve the goal (Fleming, 2014).
Health promotion is the main part of public health, which is defined as the betterment of health in the population. It presents a wide-ranging of environmental and social conditions, which is directed towards the change in negative aspects of such conditions to ease their effect on individual and public health. It enables individuals to elevate control over the factors of health and thus improve their health.
Contribution in health promotion is vital to endure promotions' action and efforts (Naidoo, 2016). Health promotion is an expression in practical terms as a source which let public to lead a productive life regarding social, economic and individual prospective because health is a source for a routine life, not an object that can be ignored easily.
It emphasizes the physical capabilities of a person. WHO has recognized public health as an important human right, and all individuals should have the right to get rudimentary resources (Lupton, 2014). The prospective health concept applies that the overall organizations that rule social, physical, and economic conditions should take responsibility for their activities in terms of their effect on the public and health (Leischik, 2016).
After the research many years, health promotion is now getting in trend. It became clear that health promotion interventions should be seen in the framework of difficult interrelationships encircling the public, societies, and health care sectors (Duplaga, 2015) and (Sitko, 2016). The approaches have found out that the effective interventions and consequent promotions that are in practice.
The interventions of health promotions should be for the betterment of local practice. The advanced interventions in public health lead to many issues and challenges regarding promotions. Interventions are commonly recognized by combining factors of a supplied intervention like theory and all with factors that are present in the local context such as funding etc. Interventions help a lot in controlling and preventing health problems (Kok, 2012).
The WHO reports show that 60% of the overall population of Saudi Arabia is physically inactive, which is not good for health at all. According to recent studies, physical activity is one of the major health's promoting practices (Kraus, 2015). Physical activity mainly decreases the many common diseases like diabetes, hypertension, various cancer, and heart disease.
It also prevents one of the major problems regarding health, i.e., obesity. It makes an individual's mental health better by decreasing depression and anxiety that shows the inverse relation of health outcomes with the amount of physical activity performed (Alahmed, 2017).
The health sector of Saudi Arabia has ranked the growth of health care services at the overall rate of care, due to which betterment has been seen in the health range of Saudi Arabia (Almalki, 2011). Besides such improvements, the major issue in Saudi Arabia's health sector is the language hurdle among the physician and their patients. Many interventions have been taken to solve this issue by health promotions using posters, leaflets, or other ways (Vyas, 2012).
After facing constant failure, alternative techniques have been applied, i.e., spreading awareness by using promotional items in health promotions, which was beneficial to give significant messages to the public (Al Aboud, 2013). It results in success whenever implemented correctly, which was also seen in TB patients (Alahmed, 2017).
Public Health revolves around the study of highlighting the issues that affect human health. It focuses on the preventive measures of diseases and prolonging humans' lives by bringing awareness through different campaigns and promotions that could improve the health of the public. The research has been done to work on the public health sector as it is one of the major elements that influence any country's environment.
It is also important to look out for the reasons that can affect the promotions and intervention to maintain public health stability. Social determinants include the status and affiliations that determine health (Shaw, 2008). In socio-economic factors, social attributes play a critical role in the lives of the people, affecting each individual's health in many ways.
Every country has its own set of characteristics that dominate over other factors compared to other places according to the specific policies and particular laws. But few general ones can be easily recognised in all parts of the world.
The socio-economic factors are one of the major influences for public health in any country, whereas; cultural factors are based on the thoughts and behaviors shared by a group of people in any country. Culture always has a great impact on all aspects of life. It contributes to every individual in an integrated pattern of values and morals.
In political factors, government policies and programs also profoundly affect health interventions in many ways (Mackenbach, 2014). At the same time, national health factors are about taking account of public health to local needs and includes the development level for the complete health sector.
Income is one of the main features that can affect public health promotion. It is directly proportional to individuals' health as it relates to the amount of money that a person is earning. When the earning is high, the health is automatically influenced better, but if it is low, it can affect the quality of the food you take or the health services that are not affordable (Abel-Smith, 2016).
It can also be described as an example that not everyone can afford to see experienced doctors of sickness or any other major health issues due to their high fees. It also goes in a way that they cannot purchase better foods to remain healthy. Income also influences the location one chose to live in as the surrounding influences health at a higher level. It can be perceived as lower earnings can lead to poorer health choices and increased health risks (Stoddart, 2017).
It is a crucial element that determines people's social and economic position related to health outcomes. Education helps in learning about the positive and negative aspects of health classified as better or poor health status. It elaborates the benefits of a healthy diet, increases the knowledge, and guides in making good choices compared to those who are not well educated or more aware about the effective food products (Rosen, 2015).
The factor of employment contributes to health promotion intervention as a means to enhance social status and self-esteem, leading to community life participation by bringing more opportunities that improve health and well-being. Employment also surrounds the area of being physically active or getting exhausted and tired due to long work hours that affect an individual's health. The nature of the job is considered in this sector that can be classified as working at farm, factory, chemicals or radiology, sports, and a proper organization (Garthwaite, 2014).
There can be many cultures within a society, and it differs in views and norms that affect health in various ways. One major factor that developing countries face is social inequality which means all the people of a country do not meet human needs. The lack of food, water, shelter, and clothing influences the health of the individuals. It affects the lifestyle and causes serious health problems as well. The easy access to these factors does create a difference in human beings' lives as these are the most important elements to survive (Berkman, 2014).
Developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and others have some of the most disturbing factors that destroy a person's health, and that is early marriages. Children are forced to marry at the early stages in many rural areas in these developing countries, which is not good for their future health (García-Moreno, 2015). Since the people in rural areas are not so educated or aware of these things, it results in the occurrence of early pregnancies, labor complications, and severe infections that could lead to life-ending diseases.
Another factor that comes under the cultural environment is family. It means the number of people in a family that does make a difference at a greater rate. People in rural areas in developing countries usually have many children with very few gaps as they do not know the preventive measures or the effect of such fast pregnancies on health. Moreover, they also face financial issues due to less income, which cannot provide the proper quality food and daily life necessities.
Poverty has been a critical factor in health determinants as it is directly linked with poor health. The less fortunate people are affected at so many levels that destroy their health. They are deprived of basic knowledge, money, and access to the services of health. Poor people cannot get treatment for diseases or see the doctors due to lack of money (Poverty and Health, 2014). Usually, there is only one member who earns for the family that brings too much of a burden. Therefore, when everyday life's basic needs are not easy for them to get, health is mostly the last thing to be given attention to for poor people.
The physical environment plays a great role in affecting people's health positively or negatively. Clean air and water are two substantial means towards a healthy lifestyle. Lack of access to clean water and sanitation as well as polluted air develops major health issues. It also includes noise pollution, access to green and open space, transportation, housing, and food. Moreover, climate seasons influence the health of infants. They all are of equal importance in environmental conditions that directly affect health. Developing countries face air and noise pollution and the limited amount of clean water, which creates trouble for them, if not right away then in the future (Lü, 2015).
The living area of a person or improper untidy housing develops certain health conditions. Poor housing is associated with major diseases like respiratory and skin infection, morbidity and mortality, and psychological effects. The overcrowded places usually do not consider a healthy lifestyle, whereas; homelessness develops sleep deprivation, mental health disorders, chronic stress, nutritional and psychic disorders.
This has a significant part like other factors in determining health. People develop various health problems at different stages of life. For example, the diseases found in infants like pneumonia, diarrhoea, and skin rashes would not be easily adopted by elders. In this manner, gender differences like men and women rarely have the same types of diseases. There are few common diseases found in women, like thyroid or kidney issues, whereas; men are mostly heart problems. This variance is the reason for distinctive lifestyles acquired by both of them.
Health Promotions has progressed a lot in the past years, but some of its procedures are limited due to the assessment methods (Peltzer, 2011). Research is much needed in the evaluation of health importance and interventions. Health promotions focus more on developing more significant results that create demanding and expensive interventions for both the physician and patient both.
Such interventions are being studied deeply by using a high level of standardized protocols (McKenzie, 2016). The effectiveness of health promotions does not show the positive or negative outcome of busy, understaffed public health clinics and huge health sectors (Baum, 2016).
The medical trend focuses on the surgical interference that gives instant outcomes. As compared to the health promotions, less research is done on their interventions. There is little research on interventions that report the population. The interventions that show effective randomized trials results are not effective when applied to the common public (Schmidt 2015).
According to the RE-AIM model the intellectualizing is done on the health of the general population that affects the applied interventions in health promotions as five elements that include efficacy, implementation, learning, reach, and management (Ward, 2018).
When interventions have been taken in health promotions by the health sector, their main focus is always developing countries. Like in Malawi, it has been applied, and their outcome was good. Health promotions are also designed specifically for children and young people. It depends on the requirement of public health. It helps in dealing with the mortality or morbidity issue and others also (Eldredge, 2016).
Overall, developing countries show the interventions in health promotions and their applications differ a lot according to sustainability and effectiveness. If the government supports health promotions rightfully, it puts a high level of impact on public health.
In Ethiopia, hygiene practices are very poor, and the sanitary situation is insufficient, resulting in the elevation of transmissible diseases in the population and worsen public health. Health promotion interventions are done to spread knowledge and apply hygiene practices in rural schools of Ethiopia and improve their hygiene characteristics (Vivas, 2010).
Children were targeted for promotions because they are more approachable for adopting healthy attitudes by them it will spread among the families and community (Lopez-Quintero, 2009).
Brazil is also considered a developing country, in which health promotions had been implemented many times in the past and present. Currently, the major concern is heart diseases, hygiene, and unhealthy lifestyle issue. The health promotions did interventions for the betterment of living and unhealthy situation of people.
The infectious disease in Brazil was a high level of public health issue in the country before, but now after many interventions regarding health promotions, including campaigns, such disease got decreased from the country. Now circulatory diseases are the main reason for mortality. All of the issues needed basin sanitation awareness and health education.
The particular activities of health promotions include improving physical activity practices, reducing smoking, decreasing death and morbidity rate due to any disease or accident, reducing alcohol intake, adopting healthy habits, and inhibition of violence (Horta, 2017). Health promotion was also done in schools, leading to positive outcomes and a lot of betterment. The growth of the Brazilian Unified Health System has been influenced by Brazil's public health sector (Ramos, 2014).
Research philosophy describes the set of beliefs that the researcher has while carrying out the research. It provides the significance of how the data will be analyzed and used in the research. The research philosophies are categorized into different types that can be used according to the researcher's nature of research and feasibility. The research philosophies that are commonly used in the research are positivism, interpretivism, and realism (Merriam and Tisdell, 2015)
The study in hand has used the interpretivism philosophy for conducting the research. Using this philosophy is based on the social sciences and focuses on the disciplines and the school of thoughts that the respondents carry out in the research. On the other hand, the positivism philosophy is based on realistic data and carries out the information based on reality.
The realism philosophy is commonly observed in scientific research and carries out the data based on experiments and scientific tests. The researcher may face problems with interpretivism philosophy because the respondents are not observed to provide justified opinions for their, and the problems may also be faced in terms of interpretation of opinions carried out by the researcher (Teherani et al., 2015). Concerning the attitudes and behaviors, interpretivism philosophy is highly suitable for the research that is being observed.
The following study will use interpretivism for identifying the impact of public health on health promotion interventions within the domain of Saudi Arabia because the research is purely based on qualitative analysis; therefore, interpretivism philosophy helps to understand the in-depth information about variables.
According to the study of Sekaran and Bougie (2016) research approach is stated as the pattern that has been selected for conducting the research. The research approaches are mainly divided into inductive and deductive approaches that provide research patterns to get significant results.
Both the approaches have their existence and vary based on the hypothesis and models used in the research. The inductive approach provides the research pattern that starts with observation and tests conducted by the researcher. It moves on to the identification of patterns used in the research and finalizes the theory.
On the other hand, the deductive approach is based on the theory that has been selected. Based on the theory, the researcher carries out the hypothesis and develops observations and tests for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. The observation and tests provide the confirmation and rejection of the hypothesis that carries out the result of the research carried out.
For the research in hand, the approach that has been used is the deductive approach as it has used the theory that has been used before and has developed. The researcher has also carried out the tests and observation to identify whether the hypothesis can be accepted or rejected. The deductive approach justifies the research carried out and is correct (Silverman, 2016). Moreover, the researcher may not lead to falsification and gets the justified results of the approaches used.
The following study will use the inductive approach of research because the underlying factors of public health promotions and their impact on health promotion interventions were analysed through systematic analysis of information. The deductive approach provides a structured way of examining Saudi Arabia's case in terms of assessing the impact.
Marshall and Rossman (2014) have identified three types of research investigation under which the research is carried out. The types of investigation methods used in the researches are exploratory, explanatory, and descriptive research. The exploratory research refers to the explore the new techniques and phenomenon that has not been used before.
As the name identifies, it provides the significance of starting the research from the groundwork. The exploratory research is aimed to find something new and carry out the research in a new direction. Descriptive research tends to explore and explain the phenomenon in detail. It provides additional information regarding the topic and fills the missing part of the research. It carries out the gap analysis and gets the work done until the gap is filled (Lewis, 2015).
Another type of investigation method followed by the researchers is explanatory research. It is also known as causal research and determines the identification of cause and effect relationships. The explanatory research is determined to explain the phenomenon that has been used before in previous researches.
It explains the description of topics and determines the causes and effects of the particular topic on another (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). The following research is based on the cause and effect relationship and hence the type of investigation used in the following study is explanatory research. The cause and effect relationship used in the explanatory research has provided the best fit for the relationship between the variables.
For the following study, the researcher will use the descriptive method of investigation to examine the relationship between public health and health promotion interventions. The explanatory study will provide information about how public health impacts the various health promotion activities.
The studies of Choy, (2014) have determined the types of research design used in the following research. The design is categorized into three main types that are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. All three types are used according to the needs and requirements of the selected topic. Qualitative research is dependent upon the collection of behavioral data.
The data is collected and analyzed in the form of statements and descriptions used to carry out the results. Another commonly used research design is the quantitative method. The data is collected in numeric and numbers that are analyzed using the statistical tools and techniques. Another commonly used method is mixed (Merriam and Tisdell, 2015).
The following research will use qualitative research design methods to examine how public health affects health promotion intervention. Using the qualitative method, the researcher will shed light on the existing articles and journals collected by different researchers and scholars.
The identified data collection methods used in the researches are categorized into primary and secondary research. The researcher collects data from the respondents based on the primary and secondary methods of collecting data. Both the methods have their ways of collecting data. The data collection for the primary research is interviews, questionnaires, experiments, and observation.
On the other hand, is the data collected from previous studies. The research, which is based on secondary data, uses the information available on the internet and carries out the data analysis (Mertens, 2014).
The study in hand has used the primary method of data collection. The data has been collected based on the qualitative methods and has gathered the information from the primary sources, including questionnaire surveys, interviews, and first-hand observation of the researcher. The researcher has faced some constraints while carrying out the primary data that is limited time and cost used for the research. Respondents are not ready to provide detailed information regarding their feelings and practices (Silverman, 2016).
The data collection method selected for this study is the secondary method of data collection. The researcher will use the second method because he intends to conduct a systematic review and answer the study's research questions. The study will also select articles from 2010 to 2018 and a health-related database will be used for examining the information.
Inclusion criteria refer to the characteristics of the study's characteristics that are included in particular research on the other hand exclusion criteria refers to specific characteristics or elements that tend to disqualify the subjects from being included in the research. The inclusion criteria of this research are different studies related to public health and public health promotion.
Majorly the studies that have been taken into account are those that are carried out in the region of Saudi Arabia and other parts of the Middle East. The exclusion criteria for the research are the studies that do not belong to credible journals and publishers.
Sampling is an integral part of the research and determines the population selected for carrying out the research. The selected population for collecting the data is known as the sample. The sampling method is further divided into non-probability and probability sampling. The probability sampling provides an equal chance to all the sample population for getting the responses. On the other hand is the non-probability sampling does not provide an equal chance to all the respondents (Silverman, 2016).
The following study is based on non-probability sampling. The technique that has been used in the study is convenience sampling. The researcher has carried out the respondents' information based on convenience for gathering data through a systematic review of articles and journals. From 2010 to 2018, the articles will be selected for obtaining information about health promotions and interventions therefore an article out from this domain will not be used.
According to Smith, (2015) data analysis is a highly important stage of the research process. The tool that has been used in the following research is thematic analysis because the study is based on qualitative techniques. The interviews gathered by the researcher and the observations have been analyzed using the method of thematic analysis.
The thematic analysis is based on the pinpointing and examination of the patterns within the data that has been collected. On the other hand, the tool for quantitative analysis in SPSS. As the study is qualitative so the data has been analyzed using themes and defining them according to the research. The researcher will use content analysis to analyze the information obtained from different sources and critically examine the data about health promotion interventions, particularly in Saudi Arabia.
The researcher will conduct a systematic review through existing studies and with the help of a descriptive approach. A systematic literature review is going to be carried out in five steps (Khan et al. 2003). The research question has been framed in the first step after which relevant publications regarding the research questions are identified. The next step covers the assessment of the quality of the study. The next step is related to summarising the evidence that has been collected. Lastly, the findings collected from different relevant articles are interpreted.
It is an integral part of the research and identifies the researcher's ethical consideration while carrying out the research. For the following research, the researcher has ensured the respondents that the data collected is valid and authentic. The confidentiality of the respondent's information has been considered. The researcher has avoided any sort of unethical activity while carrying out the research.
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