Exploring Key Issues in Business and Management: A Collection of Undergraduate Dissertation Samples

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Investigating the Impact of Employee Engagement on Organisational Performance During the Covid-19 Crisis.


The organisation’s productivity and sustainability in the altering and transitioning times are highly dependent on their employees. Employees work for the accomplishment of the goal and objectives of the organisation. Therefore, organisations are bound to fulfil the needs and satisfaction of the employees. The satisfaction in the employees led to enhance employee engagement.

Numerous researches have highlighted the link between work engagement and productivity of the workplace. Workplace engagement is regarded as a volatile factor that is highly affected by the internal and external stimuli of the workplace. The internal stimuli include the workplace environment, leadership styles and the communication channels of the organisations.

In contrast, the external factor includes the competition, stakeholders and the technological adaptation of the organisation. The current research has studied the effects of employee engagement and has highlighted how an organisation can enhance or improve them. The researcher has conducted primary quantitative research to answer the research questions. The result and discussion chapter of the research represents the significance of employee engagement for organisations and the recommendation through which organisations can improve their employee satisfaction and engagement.

Keywords: Employee Engagement, Organisational Performance, Communication, Leadership

Chapter No 1–Introduction

Background Research

The global pandemic of Covid-19 has altered the standard ways of the world. Business organisations have suffered a lot due to the lockdown and social distancing (World Health Organization, 2020). Covid-19 affected an essential aspect of business organisations, one of them being employee engagement. Covid-19 hugely affected employee performance and employee engagements.

Many researchers claim that the decrease in organisational productivity and performance is due to a lack of sales and employee engagement (NGUYEN and TRAN, 2021). The human resource managers of the business organisations are now evolving new and creative ways to acquire maximum employee engagement to overcome the losses and sufferings of the Covid-19.

Employee engagement is considered the set benchmark that works to achieve the organisation’s aims and mission (Coffman and Gonzalez-Molina, 2002). Employee engagement is the employee’s effort to procure the organisation’s goals. The researchers suggest that organisational productivity is the result of effective employee engagement.

The good engagement of employees contributes towards increased sales, higher customer satisfaction, a positive workplace environment, and profit of the company (Heintzman and Marson, 2005). It is perceived as the organisation’s encouragement characteristic; employee engagement can be increased by providing a positive environment and introducing different reward and recognition programs.

Employee engagement is hard to measure because it is an intangible factor. The presence of workers can characterise their contributions in tasks, completion of tasks, fulfilment of responsibility, efficiency, leadership, and management efforts (Ellis and Sorensen, 2007). Studies have tracked down certain relationships between employee engagement and organisational performance.

The organisational performance is influenced by employee maintenance, usefulness, benefit, customer dedication and security. Many researchers highlighted that the more engaged and satisfied the employees, the organisation would achieve more if its objectives and goals (Fernandez, 2007). Out of all the important and influential elements, employee engagement is selected as the major element for influencing organisational productivity (Coffman, 2000).

Research also suggested that the unengaged employees or the employees who are less active in the organisation’s tasks and projects are more likely to have a negative impact on the organisation’s performance. Those inactive employees in the workplace halt the progress of the team. In an organisation, employees work in teams, and teamwork depends on the efforts of all the team members.

When an employee is unengaged, it decreases the team’s overall speed (Markos and Sridevi, 2010). The speed and efficiency of the team are decided and measured by the weakest member; therefore, the unengaged employee wastes the effort and hard work of all the people of the organisation, thus decreasing the organisation’s overall productivity.

The conditions of Covid-19 have impacted employee engagement and their contributions. The organisation has discovered and introduced many new ways and practices of employee engagement. Covid-19 has entered the world in the age of digitalisation the organisations are undergoing globalisation (NGUYEN and TRAN, 2021).

It has increased the competition; the originations are procuring new ways to increase their productivity to achieve a competitive advantage globally. New ways of employee engagement are the chief focus of the organisations in the hospitality sector and F&B industry. Covid-19 badly affected employee engagement. It caused a lack of interest, tiredness, people who got affected by Covid-19 were fallen back in progress.

During Covid, the employees’ well-being and health concerns become the utmost priority of the organisations (Risley, 2020). Healthy and well employees will have good concentration power and will engage better for the betterment of the organisation. The fully engaged employee gives their 100% effort towards the organisation’s goals (Risley, 2020).

The current research wants to study and analyse the impact of Covid on employee engagement in the food business of the UK named as “Chilled ready meals“. How many ways does Covid-19 affect employee engagement, and how did it decrease organisational performance. The current research study proposes drawing and explaining the association between “employee engagement” and “organisational performance”. The research will also provide ways and methods to increase employee engagement to increase productivity.

Chilled ready meals is a chilled food business organisation of UK. It is the most advanced and known chilled food industry. The chilled ready meals provide its customer with a wide range of options, it is estimated that the company offers up to 12000 food choices to its customers. The chilled ready meals suffered from a lack of employee engagement during the COVID-19 crisis.

The company encountered a lack of sales and productivity. Still, due to the advanced system, the company could procure new employee engagement methods. The current research will analyse the progress and efforts of the company and collect data from the company to provide information about employee engagement and organisational performance.


The selected research topic is crucial and a requirement of the time because during Covid-19, organisations suffered losses and faced a decline in organisational performance. The decline in organisational performance is considered happening due to the lockdown measures and fewer sales factors of the organisation. The current literature draws the focus on the aspect of employee engagement. Employee engagement is considered to be an effective factor in organisational performance.

Employees are considered the organisation’s asset, and the decline in their performance can cause a decline in the organisation’s overall productivity. The implementation of new strategies is also based on the regulation and maintenance of the organisation’s employees. The growth in employee engagement and employee activity can increase productivity (Markos and Sridevi, 2010).

The findings and the results of the current research study can aid the readers to understand the relationship between employee performance and organisational performance. This can aid the organisations to increase their performance and productivity through maintaining and regulating employee engagement and employee satisfaction.

Aim & Objectives

The aim of the research is the main purpose of the research study; it is the idea behind the research. The aim is the essential aspect of the research as it provides direction to it. The current research aims “to study and investigate the impact of employee engagement on organisational performance during Covid-19“.

During Covid-19, the lockdown situation caused business organisations, including the F&B sector, to shut down, eventually decreasing employee engagement (Risley, 2020). The employees were forced to work from home and provide their services. Employee engagement was affected in the lockdown, and organisational performance and productivity also caused losses. The study aims to analyse the context of the impact of work engagement and the firm’s performance.

The objectives of the research aid the researcher in procuring the aims of the research. The objectives act as a guiding force for the researcher. They keep the work of study under the area of study. The research objectives of the research study are

  • “To critically evaluate existing literature in this area to draw insights into the relationship between employee engagement and organisational performance”.
  • “To identify the impact of Covid-19 on organisational performance and the ways through which organisations mitigated it.”
  • “To analyses and study the impact of Covid 19 on employee engagement and organisational performances”.

Research Questions

The research questions are the second most important aspect of the research. They are used to narrow down the approach of the research study. The research objectives are very wide; therefore, the research questions are used to achieve the specific aim of the research. The research questions represent the actual findings of the research. This research will address the following questions:

  • How did Covid-19 impact employee engagement?
  • What is the relation between employee engagement and organisational performance?
  • How did organisations cope up with the impacts of Covid on organisational performance?

What were the possible ways through which organisations can improve their employee engagement and performance in the future?

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Chapter No 2 – Literature Review

Employee Engagement and Organisational Performance

Employee engagement is a measurement tool for the organisations to measure the employees’ dedication and satisfaction with their workplace or entire organisation; it showcases the employee’s commitment and consideration towards the goals and aims of the organisation. The high level of employee engagement represents the enhancement of individual internal well-being by contributing towards organisational success (MacLeod & Clarke, 2009).

Rothwell (2010) elaborated that employee engagement is employees’ optimistic and hopeful outlook for their job, which also differentiates it from job satisfaction and job commitment. The statement of Rothwell (2010) highlights the differences in employee engagement, job satisfaction and job commitment. Still, it is also suggested that job satisfaction and commitment are the main factors for enhancing employee engagement.

It is suggested that employee engagement is more impulsive than job commitment; it is described as the individual willingness to contribute and invest efforts to achieve organisational productivity and objectives (Sharma & Krishnan, June 2012). Schaufeli et al. (2002) independently comprehended Employee engagement as “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterised by vigour, dedication and absorption”.

The researcher further suggested that vigour measures an individual’s energy, mental capability and willingness to put effort into the work task. The highly engaged employees tend to have high vigour competencies (Schaufeli et al. 2002). It is claimed that employee engagement is the collective element of job satisfaction and job contribution or working experiences.

Employees who are highly satisfied with their job and are putting maximum effort into the work are regarded as highly engaged employees. The employees who are regarded as disengaged are the ones who did not put maximum effort into their performance, did not contribute to problem-solving, and are not fully satisfied with the job either in terms of salary or workload.

Unengaged employees reduce their involvement in the tasks and are not emotionally attached to the workplaces (Truss et al., 2013). The disengaged employees are also very passionate but more inclined towards personal achievement than organisational gains. The disengaged employees are less interested in personal growth because, according to the self-determination theory, the need for growth is an intrinsic factor that enables the employee or gain more and develop internally.

Growth is achieved by problem-solving and taking part in tasks and activities actively. By being disengaged, growth and development cannot be achieved (GP Strategies, 2013). In teamwork, the less active or the slowest team member defines the speed and efficiency of the team; therefore, the disengaged employees are a threat to the team’s effectiveness.

The disengaged employees put more damage to the organisational performance. Alternatively, engaged employees are considered as the cream of the organisation. They aid the managers in building a positive workplace environment and input resources or innovation in problem-solving and critical thinking for organisational success. The engaged employees are committed to their work and look for innovations to gain efficiency in their performance. The efficiency in the employee performance eventually results in the efficiency in the organisational performance.

Employee engagement within the organisation is highly affected by several factors; these factors are identified by numerous researchers and are presented in Table 1.1

Factors that affect the employee engagement
1. Leadership style

2. Job satisfaction

3. Communication

4. Work opportunities

5. Job designing

6. Incentives and compensation

7. Recognition and rewards

8. Training and development

9. Personal growth

10. Health and Safety


The identified factors can lead to enhanced employee engagement, and any hindrances and issues in these aspects of the organisation can also affect employee engagement negatively. These identified factors are common to all types of organisations. The abundance and presence of such factors make the employees feel valued and engaged within the firm (Ellis and Sorensen, 2007). Among the identified factors, the most influential factors are

Job Designing

The recruitment and selection department of the organisation should allocate the most suitable candidate for the particular job, the deigning of the job should be done smartly, and it should be able to prove to motivate the employees, satisfy them and give satisfaction the job should be designed by keeping all the motivating and driving factors in consideration.

Leadership Style

Leadership style is the most effective factor for influencing employees’ behaviour and approaches. The managers, supervisors and team leaders are hired based on the leadership competencies (Ellis and Sorensen, 2007). There are many different styles of leadership. The leaders or the managers should be supportive of their team members, and they should have effective communication skills and motivating abilities. The leader of the team decides the direction of the team. He is accountable for the success and failure of the team. Therefore the leadership styles of the leaders should be motivating so that they can influence the employees to perform better and become more engaged.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is achieved by effective job design and good leadership. When employees are aware of the organisation’s objectives, and their job hits all the motivating and encouraging areas, they feel satisfied. Satisfaction in the job leads to better performance and engaged employees (Ellis and Sorensen, 2007). The job design that includes challenges, variety and autonomy are more adored by the employees that believe in personal growth and development.


Communication is the chief tool for project management. It aids the project manager or the team leaders in the timely delivery of the project and their quality maintenance. The organisation should pay attention to the open communication policy; there should be an effective flow of communication through effective channels and windows (Chandani et al., 2016). Through effective communication, employee problems can be reduced, and employees can suffer satisfaction. Communication is the highly identified tool that works for the benefit and significance of the organisations. The leaders and the manager should pay attention to regulating the effective communication between employees and stakeholders.

Work Opportunities

The workplaces that have a high level of work opportunities have more engaged employees. The opportunities and employee engagement run in a cycle. They both are dependent on each other. The new opportunities enhance the personal skills of the employees. They motivate the employees to learn new skills and enhance their area (Chandani et al. 2016). Employee engagement can be achieved similarly to an organisation lacking working opportunities and new challenges in the workplace by providing effective work opportunities. It results in boredom for employees and eventually leads to the disengagement of employees.

Incentives and Compensation

Incentives and compensation are the initial or primary factors for which the employee works in an organisation. When an organisation offers little salary, or not enough amounts to balance the employee hard work, the employees feel less motivated (Chandani et al., 2016). According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the individual thrives for primary needs and then strive for secondary or tertiary needs.

The most primary need of an individual is listed or identified as physiological needs that include food, water, air, shelter etc., the salary or compensation for which the employee work in an organisation is categorised as the primary need as it helps the individual in competing for his physiological needs. Therefore incentives and compensation should be given full consideration in order to achieve employee engagement (Barker & Pandita, 2014). Apart from financial incentives, a company can also offer allowances and non-financial benefits. Such elements should also be provided to satisfy the employees and to gain their maximum engagement.

Recognition and Rewards

Every employee that works in a company needs recognition and rewards. The recognition or rewards act as a motivating force for employees to strive further and develop (Barker & Pandita, 2014). The recognition programs make employees feel empowered, which is directly related to their level of satisfaction. When one feels involved and important at his workplace, he eventually starts liking his workplace and wants to strive more to achieve the organisation’s goals and objectives.

Training and Development

The challenges and new approaches in the organisation keep the employees engaged, but when employees feel difficulty in particular tasks or the implementation of new ideas without the proper training and development can cause dissatisfaction in the employees (Barker & Pandita, 2014). The proper training and development of the employees can aid the organisations in regulating the satisfaction of the employees (Andrew & Sofian, 2012).

The redundancy of the skills in the employees can lead to dissatisfaction; therefore, training and development can engage the employees in learning something new and acquiring knowledge to cope with the latest implementations and the alterations of the organisations.

Personal Growth

Challenges in the job, implementation of new strategies, and constant training and development lead to the individual’s personal growth. The employees work in an organisation primarily for the salary, secondly for internal satisfaction and thirdly for the growth of career (Andrew, & Sofian, 2012). Personal growth and development lead to progress in the career of an individual, which can make them make progress in their professional career. Lack of such opportunities in the job can lead to the lack of interest of employees and less employee engagement.

Health and Safety

During Covid-19, health and safety become the most primal priority for the employee as they return to the workplace. The lack of policies relating to the health and safety of the individual in the workplace can lead to employees’ dissatisfaction (Andrew & Sofian, 2012). The organisations should focus on regulating the health allowances and safety policies in the organisation. When employees do not feel secure in their workplaces, the engagement ratio decreases.

Factors Affecting Employee Engagement During Covid-19 Times

Covid-19 has implicated very hard times on the world; it has affected the personal life of an individual and the economic state of the world’s bigger countries. During Covid-19, the organisations have suffered a lot due to strict preventive measures and new alterations. The organisations which failed to adapt to the changing world are faded out.

The research study of Robison (2009) has highlighted the ways to remain afloat in times of crisis, like the Covid pandemic; the study has highlighted the ways to stay focused and engaged during turbulent times. These recommendations include transparency, like employees should be aware of the organisation’s expectations from them and their job requirements or objectives.

The better achievement of employee engagement is also based on available resources to do the task, effective opportunities, recognition and development. The employees should be kept satisfied by the organisation to achieve employee engagement. During times of crisis, employee engagement becomes the most effective factor for the organisation’s growth.

Therefore, employees should be responsible and be made aware of the organisations’ changing objectives and SMART objectives or the particular time being (Saks, 2006). The employees should be encouraged continuously for their efforts by the leaders. Employee engagement acts as an intermediary or bridge to regulate the job satisfaction and behaviours of the employee (Andrew & Sofian, 2012).

Many other researchers also concluded that employee engagement is the mediator to alter or improve the behaviour of the employees, their intention and efforts to perform a particular task in the workplace. Andrew and Saudah (2012) also claimed that employee engagement is the main factor in enhancing employee performance.

The manager should be assisted and motivated by the supervisors or the seniors in their job roles o provide support, training, assistance, and recognition to the employees (Basquille, 2013). Many types of research also focus on the organisation’s efforts to enhance employee engagement. According to Patro (2013), organisations should provide responsibility to the employees to maintain a good and positive workplace environment.

They should practice the strategies to implement a positive workplace environment like lack of discrimination, transparency and good communication. A positive workplace environment is the most effective element to achieve job satisfaction, motivation and employee engagement.

Further studies have also highlighted the importance of employee engagement for organisational performance. It is concluded through research that companies should actively seek strategies to engage employees and aid employees in fulfilling their desire for growth and motivation. According to Lee et al. (2016), the most pressing challenge for the HR management of the organisations is to keep the employee engaged in the organisation towards their work.

The study of Garg et al. (2017) has highlighted the positive relationship between employee engagement and job satisfaction. Jena et al. (2018) have suggested that engaged employees are very beneficial for organisational performance and productivity because their efforts and innovation bring efficiency to the organisations and aids in the fulfilment of organisational aims and objectives.

According to Jenna et al. (2018), engaged employees have a high level of performance in the organisation. It is also claimed that recognition rewards and psychological benefits also aid in increasing employee engagement (Tiwari and Lenka, 2019). The results of a research study revealed that “internal corporate communication, perceived communication satisfaction, knowledge sharing, continuous learning, and entrepreneurship were positively associated with employee engagement” (Tensay & Singh, 2020).

The study highlighted that more invested in tier human resources management organisations could gain more engaged and efficient employees, which eventually positively affect organisational performance. The employees who experience satisfaction in the workplace can input more effort (Barreiro & Treglown, 2020).

During Covid-19, many employees were affected by the virus, resulting in a lack of employee engagement. After the pandemic, the preventive measure imposed social distancing and work from home, affecting employee engagement. The organisations experienced a tough time during the pandemic but adapted to the changes and introduced effective measures to overcome the hurdles. The organisation needs an effective strategy to gain maximum employee engagement through employee satisfaction and content. The researchers conclude that the absence of employee engagement can result in the failure and dissolution of the organisation.


Theoretical Framework

Self-determination Theory

The self-determination theory is highly suitable for explaining employee engagement; it highlights the importance of self-determination, which is gained by satisfying internal needs and a thirst for growth. The self-determination theory is a macro theory of human motivation and personality. It was developed by psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan.

This theory suggests that “the Individuals are self-determined and motivated when their needs of competence, connection and autonomy are fulfilled”. The theory highlights the importance of self-determination or internal motivation for big achievements. According to Olafsen (2016), individuals become happy when their internal needs for growth and competence are accomplished.

The fulfilment of internal needs compels individuals to strive more and input more efforts into the tasks, activities, and surroundings. This is similar to the bucket of emotions concept. According to every person in a workplace, they have a bucket of emotions that is needed to be fulfilled with positive experiences. When one’s bucket is full, the person becomes self-determined, motivated and inspired and can inspire others and input their 100% efforts.

The theory suggests that when people are motivated, they feel responsible for their tasks which aid them in focusing on their performance and efficiency. Self-determination theory is very beneficial in comprehending the factors that can stimulate positive individual behaviours or attitudes. The feeling of responsibility and capability is the chief that triggers the growth and development of a person. This is a cyclic approach. Growth and development are triggered by capabilities and the need to learn capabilities. The self-determination theory is based on two key assumptions that are

“The need for growth derive individuals behaviours, and Autonomous motivating is essential.”

Chapter No 3 – Research Methodology

Saunders Research Onion

The research methodology is the step by a step action plan of the research study. According to Saunder et al. (2003), the research methodology accumulates different stages, including research paradigm, approach, and data collection techniques. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill developed the Saunders research framework to aid the researchers and students in identifying the most suitable research methodology (Saunder et al. 2007). The Saunders research onion mimics the anatomy of onion in which different layers of onion represent the distinct stages of the methodology. The research onion aids in the comprehension of different phases. The stages of methodology as per the onion model are

Research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, research choices, time horizon and data collection”

Research Philosophy

The research philosophy represents the main theme. The idea of the research study is the idea to which the researcher follows and addresses the research objectives and findings of the study. The current research study follows a positivist philosophy, and positivism philosophy allows researchers to investigate a social phenomenon through observation. According to the paradigm, the reality is the outcome of social behaviours (Saunder et al., 2015). The positivism paradigm is a very suitable paradigm for observational studies. In the positivism philosophy, the researcher or observer has a research question or proposed hypothesis that needs to be investigated or evaluated. The social phenomena and behaviours can be investigated or analysed through positivism philosophy.

Research Approach

The research approach acts as a second phase of the methodology; the research approach can be defined as the plan or procedure of the research methodology. His current research follows the positivism paradigm to which the deductive approach fits best. The deductive approach is best for investigating and evaluating the proposed hypothesis (Saunder et al., 2007). This approach in the research study uses statistical methods to evaluate the hypothesis or observation.

Research Strategy

Research strategy is determined to be the third phase of the research Methodology by Saunder et al. (2003). Research strategy is the method through which the researchers carry forward the research. The current research posted for survey strategy. The researcher will gather information based on the survey and draw his results in the research. The survey researches are very beneficial and economical. Very opulent and reliable data can be collected through this strategy.

Research Method

The research method is classified as the fourth stage of the methodology. The research method highlights the type of data that will be collected and how the results will be illustrated. According to Saunders et al. (2007), three categorised methods are the “mono method, multi-method and mixed-method”. In the mono method, the researcher can only use one method: qualitative or quantitative. In the multi-method and mixed-method, both methods are used but in differentiation. For the current research, the researchers have selected used multi-method for the data collection.

Time Horizon

Time horizon is also included in the research methodology. It is an important aspect that determines the time frame and zone of the research. It also highlights the time window of the research. Some researches are multi framed because their data is collected from different phases of time, whereas some researches are held in a single time frame (Saunder et al. 2009). The research study can be “longitudinal or cross-sectional”. The current research has followed a cross-sectional time horizon it means the data is collected in only a one-time establishment. The layers defined by the Saunders research model are very beneficial and aid the researchers in defining the effective research methodology. Data collection and the data analysis description are provided further as they represent the most internal layer of research onion.

Data Collection and Data Analysis

The researcher has opted for primary data through a questionnaire for the data collection. A structured questionnaire is prepared to collect the data about employee engagement. A structured questionnaire is prepared through a Likert scale in which responses are defined through numbers 1 till 5. The one in the questionnaire represents strong disagreement, whereas the 5 represent strong agreement with the presented statement. The data about organisational performance will be gathered from the financial report of the organisations. The participants recruited for data collection are the employees of the selected organisation, i.e., “Chilled ready meals”; the researchers have opted for random sampling and gave selected random employees for data collection. For the data analysis, statistical regression analysis will be used through SPSS. The regression analysis is significant, highlighting “the relation between the independent and dependent variables”. The current study investigates the relationship between employee engagement and job performance in which job performance is regarded as the dependent variable. On the other hand, employee engagement is also a dependent variable because it is affected or enhanced through many factors that are highlighted in the literature review. The current research will also highlight or recommend the ways through which employee engagement can be enhanced during the Covid-19 pandemic.

The current research is a primary research study in which fresh data is gathered through observation and survey. The research study implies ethical considerations that protect the study from ethical bindings or limitations. The researchers of the current research have taken care of the applied ethical considerations. The ethical considerations applied to the current research are anonymity, confidentiality, informed consent and voluntary participation.

Chapter No 4 – Analysis and Discussion

Regression Analysis

The researchers have used regression analysis to analyse the primary data collected through a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire is attached in the appendix section of the research. Regression analysis is the statistical tool used to investigate the relation between two variables. The researcher has gathered primary data through surveys and web pages. The results of the regression analysis are given below.

Table 2 Regression statistics

Table 3 Anova

Table 4 Coefficients and p values

Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.20527
R Square 0.042136
Adjusted R Square 0.012203
Standard Error 0.187158
Observations 34
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 0.049308 0.049308 1.407663 0.244179
Residual 32 1.120898 0.035028
Total 33 1.170205
Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 4.455159 0.29765 14.96779 5.28E-16 3.848867 5.061452 3.848867 5.061452
ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE (REVENUE) -0.04522 0.03811 -1.18645 0.244179 -0.12284 0.032412 -0.12284 0.032412

The regression analysis results have highlighted the positive relationship between employee engagement and job performance. It has supported the proposed hypothesis that “employee engagement has a positive impact on job performance”. It is revealed that employee engagement and job performance are directly proportional to each other. The lesser p-value and significant value have concluded the relation of employee engagement and organisational performance. The organisational performance is highly affected by employee engagement; the data collected about the employee engagement from the selected organisation has revealed positive results.

The employees are satisfied and are happy to work with the organisations. The data also revealed that organisations had implemented effective strategies to solve the problems related to the pandemic. Apart from the association of work engagement and performance, the participants’ responses highlighted their satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the jobs.

“What were the possible ways through which organisations can improve their employee engagement and performance in the future?”

To cope up with the effects of the pandemic and its preventive measures, the organisation have to practice the strategies to enhance employee engagement. The critical analysis of different researches and through the findings of the primarily collected data has been highlighted that organisational needs an effective strategy to implement and improve the organisation’s employee engagement. To achieve increased job performance, the researchers have come up with the 5C model of employee engagement.

The 5’C model of employee engagement

The 5C employee engagement model has been designed and developed to incorporate employee engagement and well-being during the turbulent times of Covid-19. The majority of the alterations and the preventive measure for encountering the effects of measures are short term and are temporarily implemented. Out of these, many measures revolve around the economic and health safety of the employees and the organisation.

During the times of Covid, organisations and employees have been affected; there is a high need to procure an effective measure to reduce the after-effects of the pandemic from the organisations and employees. Employee engagement has been hardly affected by the impact of Covid-19 (De-la-Calle-Durá and Rodríguez-Sánchez, 2021).

The preventive measure of Covid, like social distancing and lockdown, has hindered the organisations’ progress and compelled them to take urgent measures for the well-being of the employees. The organisations have encountered a gap in progress and productivity. Numerous organisations that failed to adapt to the changing needs of the time have faded out, but numerous are still fighting with the impact of a pandemic.

Many organisations have adopted new strategies; the researchers have conducted general research and have gathered the 5C model for employee engagement. The 5 C model contains 5 elements that are the organisation’s backbone. These elements trigger different areas of the firm, but eventually and collectively, they trigger employee engagement.

As concluded above, employee engagement has a positive impact on job performance and organisational productivity; therefore, the HR management of the firm has strategies to engage the employee through intruding activities and tasks. The 5C model has identified the following five factors that can aid in the enhancement of employee engagement.

5C model of employee engagement
Conciliation Cultivation Confidence Compensation Communication

Table 5 5C model of employee engagement



The turbulence and changes in the organisation led to adaptability in the work strategies and the policies. It is estimated that 58% of the workers thought of being capable of doing work from home. They also thought they had all the required capabilities. Out of all the employees of the organisation, 68% only agreed to work from home.

However, they have not ever done it before. The Covid time called for bigger adaption n the workplaces. Many employees who lack the capabilities and potential were also left behind and were prone to stress and feelings of injustice. The feeling of injustice can root the dissatisfaction in the employees, which causes the lack of engagement. During covid-19, despite the internal feeling, the problems of adaptability and potential or resources also caused the lack of engagement. By July 2020, 40% of representatives showed telecommuting in light of the pandemic.

The majority of this work renders it hard to build up a typical definition. Regardless, researchers drew up an underlying grouping that recognises the accompanying seven standards for characterising the idea of remote work: area, time span, specialised, esteem chain, legally binding relationship, and compensation. In this way, the area model is related to the actual spot where the individual is working, as remote working doesn’t mean telecommuting.

Concerning the time span, remote work has specific, explicit qualities relying upon the times of the week, the month, and so forth. As far as the functioning day, and likewise, with some other sort of work, it very well might be full-time or low maintenance. Remote working empowers a firm to be more effective due to a more useful labour force utilising less space, energy, and so on.

With many people telecommuting, contamination levels will be altogether diminished, and manageability is currently a significant resource for firms. Those organisations that lead the field to utilise this worth, including their approval, will enjoy a cutthroat benefit. Firms have additionally observed that their catchment region for potential newcomers has developed, as “living in the region of the empty post” will don’t really be a necessity for employing.

For workers, the advantages of remote working get from the better balance between serious and fun activities, which works fair and square of occupation fulfilment and engagement. Work from home is an adaptation that requires potential and technological resources for better results. The companies that accommodated work from home gave the employees adaptable resources, possible training and awareness lessons to reduce the errors and failures. Work from home is an alternative adaptation for office work, and it can be used to provide freedom in work.


The covid-19 has affected the organisations economically. Not the organisation has regained their strengths and old position in the market. The organisations have to fulfil the economic gap and have to retain their employee strength. Many firms have selected the terminations and recruitment method for gaining new and fresh perspectives and innovation in the form of employees.

Still, these methods are foreseen to be a high negative impact on the future and productivity of the organisation. The old employees and old teams have been comfortable with each other, and the workplace environment has already been prepared. Still, for the new employees, the team leaders and managers have to work again in team-building confidence-building training and development.

The current time requires sudden action and immediate planning. Therefore the long process of training and recruitment cannot benefit the organisation in the long term. According to De-la-Calle-Durá and Rodríguez-Sánchez (2021), the individual employee’s persona growth and development contribute to the organisation’s productivity.

The dissatisfaction in the job leads to disengagement, and resignations are comprehended through the Cusp theory. The intention to leave the job is characterised by the feeling of work tension stimulated by dissatisfaction; the stress employees feel is regarded as a catastrophe in theory, whereas dissatisfaction is termed a cusp.

The dissatisfied employee is not an asset of the organisation; instead, he becomes a liability that slows down the whole team’s speed. During crisis recruitment, employers need to select employees efficiently and understand their expectations also comprehend the organisation’s aims, objectives, mission and vision effectively so that employees can feel passionate about the organisation’s moral values(De-la-Calle-Durá and Rodríguez-Sánchez, 2021).

The commitment and passion towards the organisation will stop the employees from quitting and will lead to the initiation of problem-solving skills and behaviour. The motivation, support, and understanding between employees and employers are the primary need of job designers and recruiters.

Additionally, employers need to maintain a positive work environment in the workplace so that everybody feels motivated and inspired to work more effectively and efficiently. These practices incorporate organisational strengthening, which comes from the reason that an organisation’s exhibition and efficiency regulation when power and control efficiently are divided among the firm and its workers.

This practice can regulate the passion in the employees towards their organisation. There is a high relationship between’s more noteworthy chances for proficient development and advancement and a lower goal to leave the work. An appropriate in-house preparing plan further develops representative mentalities, just as their assumptions and inspiration toward their positions.

Be that as it may, it is hard for organisations to let loose representatives prepare exercises in typical financial conditions because of higher freedom costs. During the pandemic time frame, representative preparation related to brief time framework and transitory joblessness was very scant. The primary reasons lie in troubles anticipating the term of the emergency, restricted assets, and the absence of arranging around preparing needs.

In the context of new times, the human resource management needs to up their game and become more responsible for their functions. The HR function of the organisations is required to be more responsible and effective to develop a counterfeit system for pandemic impacts. The HR department needs to be implementing new technological adaptations and technological tools in their workplaces.

The altering of technological adaptations will generate many new opportunities and effective results. The managers can lead their team effectively and plan and execute their strategies efficiently through the advancement. Along with employee engagement and job satisfaction, training and development are very important in organisations to regulate the new normal trends of the pandemic.


The work setting is a significant variable influencing individuals’ well-being. The well-being of an employee is very important for the firm’s benefit. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), well-being is an all-encompassing condition of prosperity and not just the shortfall of sickness. In such a manner, the organisational foul play might trigger enthusiastic responses, for example, stress or cardiovascular sicknesses (Kumar, 2021).

Also, this organisational scheme to which a worker might be differentiated or not supported might prompt long haul issues influencing their satisfaction. The organisations should foster a good support system for the well-being of the employees. In this manner, worker engagement will improve significantly when they are sure that endeavours are being made to protect their well-being, rigorously agreeing with true rules, and surprisingly going to extra lengths.

As indicated by researchers, a “social-based trust” gets from the nature of the relationship after some time than from perception of the other party’s particular practices, for instance, shared warmth or joined interest. Even though organisations themselves are answerable for evaluating the danger their representatives might be presented to, there are sure broad estimates that the firms need to ensure some of them are given the ability to support individual cleanliness in the work environment (hand-washing, masks, and two-meter social removing), guaranteeing the well-being of work environments by proper sanitising surfaces and equipment planting sanitising stations at every corner (goods, halls) to maintain the two-meter security distance between representatives.

To ensure the full well-being of the employees, the workplaces must quantify the workplace, regulate and monitor the workplace and employee performances, implement advanced parameters to check the health of the employees, and lastly, implement the preventive measure allocated by the government.


Compensation for employees refers to the financial rewards like salary or the financial allowances they get in return for their contributions and hard work at the organisation. During crises and turbulence, many organisations have removed the rewards and allowances of the employees to fill the economic gap, which is a wrong step.

Removing allowances and bonuses can disengage the employees, which can harm the organisation’s future (Vickers, 2019). The 5C model elements aid the organisations in fulfilling the long term benefits. Equal wages are the basic concept regarding salaries; each employee deserves a salary that should be equal to his duties and responsibilities.

During the time of crisis, the employees should be given more allowances, and the benefits that need it the most the covid-19 pandemic has affected every individual very badly, the bigger organisations that can aid the employees can get the long term benefit in terms of employee commitment and satisfaction. The removal of allowances and salaries can impose the idea of injustice within the employees.

The organisations should work for the benefit of the employees because the employees continuously work for the benefit of the organisations. To counter the problem of wages and incentives, the organisations can implement a target-based incentive that acts as a motivating force and rewards the employees (Kumar, 2021). The target-based incentives can be planned according to the new working conditions.

This can help in getting employee engagement. The management can pout incentives on achieving objectives and fulfilling tasks or activities by the employees. This method can be easily implemented and monitored in the remote working system. This can act as a smart move from the management to regulate the employees.

Non-financial advantages, like those of a social sort, are motivating forces intended to address a particular need and are regularly given in a non-cash structure. They are less boundless because of the significant expense that they cause for the organisation. In the plan of non-money related advantages, it is vital to remember workers’ needs and lives. For instance, a telecommuter may begin to feel withdrawn and assemble an imperceptible hindrance in the current setting.

This implies that acknowledging objectives, targets, great outcomes, and inclusion in the association’s everyday challenges, for instance, needs to be viewed as a device that will significantly assist with carrying labourers with is duties and their monitoring by the supervisors.


Communication is regarded as the chief essential factor for all the organisation’s functions. Without open and transparent communication, the organisation cannot progress because, without communication, the organisations and the employees cannot spread their demands and requirements. In the turbulent times of Covid-19, communication has proven to be the most effective and beneficial element in dealing with all the emerging problems and issues.

Communication within the organisation is a cyclic process that can be elaborated through the communication process. The in the communication process, the communication initiates with a sender and ends with the sender through a feedback system. Communication with a feedback system is very effective and is term effective communications.

The relationship between employees, colleagues, and managers is a critical aspect because the positivity in their relationship can result in the organisation’s productivity. Still, the lack of communication in their relationship can cause the organisations to fail (Kumar, 2021). During crisis times, in the remote working conditions, communication can become a healing force and strengthening fore for the organisations, the advancement in the technology aid the employees to connect with each other, the online meetings through different apps and software’s gathered quite a popularity in the pandemic because of item communication benefits.

Work from home becomes easier because of these apps and software. The organisations adapted their physical meeting rooms into virtual rooms to balance the technology and digital era. Open and effective communication solves all the problems of the organisations, whether the problem is of employees or employers. Effective communication generates a positive work environment which is the main aspect of job satisfaction.

De-la-Calle-Durá and Rodríguez-Sánchez (2021) suggested that openness in communication within the firm can reduce employee stress and friction. It can also heal the mental state of the employees positively. Disputes in the workplace should be avoided as they can result in the disengagement of employees. Effective communication should be used to foster good relationships and to reduce conflict within the organisations.

Chapter No 5 – Conclusion and Recommendations

The momentum research proposes to study and examine the effect of employee engagement on organisational performance during Covid-19. During Covid-19, the lockdown circumstance caused business organisations, including the F&B area, to close down, ultimately diminishing employee engagement. The employees had to telecommute and offer their types of assistance. Employee engagement was impacted in the lockdown, and the organisational performances and usefulness also caused misfortunes.

The review expects to examine the relations between employee engagement and organisational performance. Coronavirus massively impacted employee performance and employee engagement. Numerous specialists guarantee that organisational efficiency and performance are lessening because of an absence of deals and employee engagement.

The human asset directors of the business organisations are currently developing new and innovative ways of gaining the most extreme employee engagement to defeat the misfortunes and sufferings of the Covid-19. Employee engagement is viewed as the set benchmark that works for accomplishing the points and mission of the organisation.

Employee engagement is the employee’s work to secure the organisation’s objectives. The analysts propose that organisational efficiency is the consequence of successful employee engagement. The great engagement of employees contributes towards expanded deals, higher consumer loyalty, a positive working environment climate, and the organisation’s benefit.

Explores likewise recommended that the unengaged employees or the less dynamic employees in the organisation’s undertakings and tasks are bound to contrarily affect the organisation’s performance. Those idle employees in the work environment end the advancement of the group. In an organisation, employees work in groups, and collaboration relies upon the endeavours of all the colleagues.

When an employee is unengaged, it diminishes the group’s general speed. The speed and effectiveness of the group are chosen and estimated by the most fragile part; along these lines, the unengaged employee squanders the work and difficult work of the relative multitude of individuals of the organisation, hence diminishing the organisation’s general usefulness.

Employee engagement is the uplifting perspective of employees towards their work which additionally separates it from gig satisfaction and occupation responsibility. The features are the distinctions of employee engagement, work satisfaction and occupation responsibility. Yet, it is likewise recommended that work satisfaction and responsibility are the fundamental elements for the upgrade of employee engagement.

It is recommended that employee engagement is more imprudent than the gig responsibility; it is portrayed as the singular readiness to contribute and contribute its own endeavours to accomplish organisational efficiency and destinations. Many researchers autonomously grasped Employee engagement as “a positive, satisfying, business related perspective that is described by force, devotion and retention”.

The analyst further recommended that power is the proportion of a person’s energy, mental ability and readiness to invest energy in the work task. The profoundly connected employees tend to have high life abilities. It is guaranteed that employee engagement is the aggregate component of occupation satisfaction and occupation commitment or working encounters.

Employees who are profoundly happy with their work and are investing the greatest amounts of energy in work are viewed as exceptionally drawn in employees. The employees who are viewed as withdrawn are the person who didn’t invest the greatest energy in their performance, didn’t contribute in critical thinking and are not completely happy with the gig wilt as far as compensation or responsibility.

Unengaged employees lessen the individual association in the errands and are not genuinely appended to the work environments. The withdrawn employees are likewise exceptionally energetic and are more disposed towards individual accomplishment than the organisational additions. The withdrawn employees are less intrigued by the self-awareness because, as indicated by the self-assurance hypothesis, the requirement for development is a natural element that empowers the employee or acquires and grows inside.

It has upheld the proposed theory that “employee engagement emphatically affect the work performance” uncovered that employee engagement and occupation performance are straightforwardly relative to one another. During the hours of Covid, organisations and employees both have been affected; there is a significant need to obtain and powerful measure to diminish the delayed consequences of the pandemic from the organisations and employees.

The effect of Covid-19 has not really impacted employee engagement. The preventive proportion of the Covid, likes social removing and lockdown, has impeded the advancement of the organisations and have constrained them to take pressing measures for the prosperity of the employees. The organisations have experienced a hole in advancement and efficiency.

Various organisations who neglected to adjust to the changing requirements of the time have grown dim, yet various are battling with the pandemic’s effect. Numerous organisations have adjusted new techniques; the specialists have led the overall exploration and gave assembled 5C model for employee engagement. The current research study has successfully gained its aims and objectives, but like other studies, this research study also has some limitations.

The limitations are the bindings of the research study or the research gap that needs to be identified so that the gap should be fulfilled in future studies. The current research study is significant and beneficial for academia and organisations. The study recommends ways to implement and enhance employee engagement and employee satisfaction.

The current research has certain limitations, like this study is quantitative. As for the topic, qualitative research will be more beneficial as it will give comprehensive elaborations to the research questions. The current research study can aid future researchers and serve as the foundation for future studies but with some alterations and amendments.


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The questionnaire is based on Likert scale. The questionnaire about employee engagement is divided into 4 sections in which questions gather information about job satisfaction, salary, working experience and Covid-19. Responses in Likert scale consist of 5 types starting from 1 to 5, in which

  • 5 = strongly agree
  • 4 = agree
  • 3 = neither agree noir disagree
  • 2 = disagree
  • 1 = strongly disagree

1. What age group do you belong to?




2. What is your gender?



3. For how many years have you been working in this organisation?

0-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

A) Job satisfaction

Questions 5 4 3 2 1
1. You are satisfied with your work
2. You are satisfied with your work colleagues
3.You are satisfied and happy with your seniors
4. Work enhances and utilises your abilities

B) Salary

Questions 5 4 3 2 1
1. You are satisfied with your salary
2. You get enough salary for your amount of work
3. The economy affects my satisfaction with my current salary level
4. You are likely interested in advancement and financial gain

C) Working experience

Questions 5 4 3 2 1
1. you feel that workplace training opportunities encourage you to work better
2. You are valued as a hardworking individual within the organisation
3.you have the tools and resources I need to do the job
4. Your supervisor actively listen to Your issues and suggestions
5. You are enthusiastic about your job
6. You are highly engaged in your job

D) Covid-19 measures

Questions 5 4 3 2 1
1. Covid-19 have affected your Job engagement
2. Your organisation have implemented the effective Covid-19 preventive measures
3.The measures like work from home and high engagement from employees positively affected the job performance
4. Company’s performance escalated when employees were more engaged through preventive measure during Covid-19
5. The company has implemented effective systems for keeping remote employees connected.
6. Senior leaders have communicated a clearly defined re-integration strategy

Frequently Asked Questions

The time to write an undergraduate full dissertation varies, but it typically takes several months, including research, drafting, and revisions.